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Chapter IX:. Emerging Europe and the Byzantine Empire. European Transition. Germanic peoples began moving into Roman territory by 200AD The Franks was the only long lasting Germanic kingdom.

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Chapter ix

Chapter IX:

Emerging Europe and the Byzantine Empire

Chapter ix

European transition
European Transition

  • Germanic peoples began moving into Roman territory by 200AD

  • The Franks was the only long lasting Germanic kingdom.

  • Clovis (who converted to Christianity around 500 AD) created the Frankish kingdom

  • Germans and Romans intermarried and created a new society

  • Ordeal= physical trial used by Germanic peoples to determine guilt or innocence

  • Wergild: amount of money paid by a criminal to the family of the person he had killed or injured

  • The Germanic tribes used trial by ordeal. This meant a physical trial such a holding a red hot piece of iron. If unharmed=innocent


  • Established the missi dominici (two mwn who were sent out to local districts to ensure that the counts were carrying out the king’s orders

  • Magyars= people of western Asia who settled on the plains of Hungary


  • Vikings were made part of European civilization by the Frankish policy of settling them and converting them to Christianity

  • The Vikings loved adventure, spoils of war and trade…As a result, they attacked many areas of Europe…They were excellent shipbuilders, warriors and sailors


Middle ages daily life
Middle Ages: Daily Life

  • Chivalry= a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold/ oath to defend the Catholic Church, defenseless people, treat captives as honored guests/ implied that knights should only fight for glory and not for material rewards

  • Knights showed their fighting skills in contests called: tournaments

  • The clergy, the nobility and the peasants and townspeople made up the three estates

  • Count= a German noble who acted as the king’s representative in a certain local area

  • Aristocratic women in feudal Europe:

  • Legally hold property

  • Most women were under the control of their fathers until they were married

  • Many opportunities to play important roles

  • Overseeing money matters and food supply (controller of servants)


  • Vassalage=the heart of feudalism

  • Feudal contract= a set of unwritten rules that determined the relationship between a lord and a vassal: The major obligation of a vassal to his lord was to perform military service. usually about 40 days a year. Also, when summoned, a vassal had to appear at his lord’s court to give the lord advice. Vassals were also responsible for making financial payments to the lord as well

  • When a lord was away at court or war, management of his estate fell to the lady of the castle

  • Fief= the grant of land made to a vassal


Christianity in medieval europe
Christianity in Medieval Europe

  • Christianity had become the supreme religion of the Roman Empire by 500

  • The church developed a system of organization

  • Saint Benedict:

  • Founded a community of monks that established the basic form of monasticism in the Catholic Church

  • Monk= a man who separates himself from ordinary society in order to pursue a life of dedication to God.

  • Missionaries= people sent out to carry a religious message

  • Monks copied the scriptures and Latin in rooms called: scriptoria

  • The separation between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the catholic Church of the West was called: The Great Schism

  • 2: Gregory I strengthened the power of the papacy

The magna carta
The Magna Carta

  • 1215, Runnymede, England

  • Resenting the monarchy’s expanding power; many nobles rebelled against King John.

  • “Great Charter”

  • Recognized the longstanding feudal idea of mutual rights and obligations between the lord and vassal.

  • Eventually was used to strengthen the idea that a monarch’s power was limited, not absolute

  • Under Edward I, the English Parliament emerged

The byzantine empire
The Byzantine Empire

  • 400’s, as Germanic tribes moved into the western part of the Roman empire, the Eastern Roman empire continued to exist

  • Justinian became emperor of the ERE in 527…codification of Roman law

  • Over time, the ERE shrank because it became too big to control, so it became the Byzantine Empire (patriarch/ Eastern Orthodox instead of pope/ Roman Catholic)

  • Great Schism (still hasn’t healed)

The crusades
The Crusades

  • 1000’s to 1200’s, European Christians went on a series of military campaigns to regain the Holy Land from the Seljuk Turks (Muslims…called infidels by the Crusaders)

  • The push for the crusades came when Alexius I asked for aid/ Pope Urban II agrees to help

  • The European Christians called the Muslims of the Holy Land: infidels