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Entomology for the Masters. a brief history insect overview Order recognition identification activity plant damage garden friend and foe. Michael Meyer, Ph.D. Dept. Organismal and Environmental Biology Christopher Newport University.

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slide1

Entomology for the Masters

  • a brief history
  • insect overview
  • Order recognition
  • identification activity
  • plant damage
  • garden friend and foe

Michael Meyer, Ph.D.

Dept. Organismal and Environmental Biology

Christopher Newport University

slide2

John Henry Comstock - the first entomology instructor

Comstock  Traver  Edmunds  McCafferty  Meyer

slide5

Class: Arachnida (arachnids)

Order: Opiliones (harvestmen)

  • single body segment
  • predators; scavengers of animals and plants
  • repellent secreted as defense
slide7

Class: Arachnida (arachnids)

Order: Acari (mites, ticks, chiggers)

  • variety of life histories
  • predators, herbivores, parasites, suspension feeders
  • terrestrial and aquatic (fresh and salt water)
  • may be vectors of disease
slide9

Class: Arachnida (arachnids)

Order: Araneae (spiders)

  • poison = protein-digesting
  • fangs are distal portion of chelicerae
  • spinnerets and silk (six main kinds) production
slide11

Class: Diplopoda [millipedes]

  • - generally cylindrical
  • 2 pair of legs on body segments
  • slow; feed on plants or decaying materials
slide13

Class: Chilopoda [centipedes]

  • - flattened; one pair of legs on body segments
  • fast: predators, feed on insects/other arthropods
  • poison jaws paralyze prey
slide15

Why should we study entomology?

Insects are the dominant group of animals.

- the Earth’s most varied organism

- 80% of all known animals, 57% of all life

- >1 million described species [54K vertebrates]

slide16

2. Many insects are valuable to us.

  • produce goods (i.e., honey, silk), services (i.e., pollination, pest control), and food (i.e., fruits, vegetables)
  • research animals (i.e., Drosophila, bomb-sniffing wasps)
slide17

3. Some insects are harmful.

  • destroy crops, animals, and possessions
  • transmit human disease
  • just plain annoying
slide18

4. Insects are fascinating/interesting.

  • beautiful, fascinating organisms
  • used throughout human culture/history
slide20

Factors in the success of insects.

  • Highly adaptable exoskeleton.
  • legs suited for locomotion on land and in water
  • tracheae system for respiration
  • wax covering to reduce the loss of moisture
slide21

2. Colonization of the terrestrial environment before chordates.

  • Early Devonian (410 MYA) = first fossil record
  • Early Jurassic (200 MYA) = therians (early mammals)
slide22

3. Small body size.

- occupy an enormous variety of small places

slide23

4. High birthrate and short generation time.

  • little time to grow to maturity (due to small size)
  • increased potential for genetic change in populations
slide24

5. Highly efficient flight.

  • escape unfavorable habitats and colonize new ones
  • escape enemies, find food, mates, places to oviposite
slide25

6. Life history with metamorphosis.

  • reduced competition between larvae and adults
  • larvae utilized food inaccessible to adults
slide28

Head

- mouthparts

hypognathus [herbivore/chewing]

prognathus [predator]

opisthognathus [herbivore/sucking]

slide30

Wings

- generalized [membranous] [dragonfly]

slide32

Wing modification

- elytra [beetle]

slide34

Wing modification

- hemelytra [true bug]

slide36

Wing modification

- tegmina [roaches and “songsters”]

A Blan

slide38

Wing modification

- halteres [true flies]

slide40

Abdomen

Aphids: cornicles

slide42

Abdomen

Earwig: modified cerci

slide45

Ephemeroptera [for a day wings] (Mayflies)

  • larvae are aquatic
  • subimago life stage
  • adults w/ vestigial mouthparts
  • adults w/ two or three long “tails”
slide47

Odonata [tooth] (Dragonflies and Damselflies)

  • larvae are aquatic, w/ prehensile labium
  • wings held perpendicular or parallel to body
  • predators; catch basket
  • live 3/4 weeks [damsel], 6/10 weeks [dragon]
slide49

Orthoptera [straight wings] (Grasshopper, Crickets, and Katydids)

  • generally with modified hind legs
  • thickened forewings called tegmina
  • many are musicians
  • most are plant feeders [i.e., pests]
slide51

Phasmatodea [small phantom] (Walking Sticks)

  • camouflaged, stick-like body
  • elongate thorax; reduced or absent wings
  • eggs scattered on ground [dropped from trees]
slide53

Dermaptera [skin wings] (Earwigs)

  • modified cerci: female strait, male curved
  • reduced forewings [winged] or wingless
  • antennal segments increase with molts
  • nocturnal, most feed on plant matter
slide55

Isoptera [equal wings] (Termites)

  • multiple casts: queen, king, workers, soldiers
  • cellulose eating; many with symbiotic protozoan
  • often referred to as “white ants”
slide57

Mantodea [soothsayer] (Mantids)

  • can move head capsule
  • modified forelegs with elongate spines
  • overwinter as eggs in ootheca [200+ eggs]
  • many species in US are introduced
slide59

Blattodea [cockroach] (Cockroaches)

  • oval, flattened; cursorial
  • leathery forewings [tegmina]
  • head concealed by pronotum
  • egg capsule [ootheca]
  • primarily tropical; annoying
slide61

Hemiptera [half wings] (True Bugs, Cicadas, Hoppers, Whiteflies, Scales)

  • piercing-sucking mouthparts
  • huge diversity: body form, wings, antennae
  • predators, herbivores, parasites: may be vectors
slide63

Thysanaptera [fringe wings] (Thrips)

  • body range from 0.5-5 mm
  • unique, rasping mouthparts
  • feed on plants; many are vectors
  • if wingless, then eyeless
slide65

Coleoptera [sheath wings] (Beetles)

  • modified forewing [elytra]
  • rule the world (by numbers); 30,000 species in NA
  • tremendous variation of habitats and life history strategies
slide67

Neuroptera [nerve wings] (Alderflies, Lacewings, Antlions, Owlflies, etc.)

  • soft bodied, wings with many crossviens
  • larvae and adults predaceous; diverse
slide69

Hymenoptera [god of marriage wings] (Sawflies, Wasps, Ants, Bees)

  • many have slender waist [pedicel]
  • many social; most important pollinators
  • hugely beneficial (i.e., predators, parasitoids)
  • ovipositor modified into a sting [some]
slide71

Lepidoptera [scale wings] (Butterflies, Skippers, Moths)

  • scales cover wings, body and legs
  • variety of antennae; coiled proboscis
  • 11,500 species in NA; can be plant pests
  • some with tympanum to detect bat echolocation
slide73

Mecoptera [long wings] (Scorpionflies)

  • 9-25 mm in length; known as snow fleas
  • male genitals similar in appearance to scorpion sting
  • many extant families/genera found in fossil record
slide75

Diptera [two wings] (Flies, Midges, Mosquitos)

  • modified hind wings [halteres]
  • great diversity of natural history strategies; many are pests; vector of many diseases
  • variety of mouth types
slide76

Identification Activity

Can you identify each of the insect Orders?

slide78

Insect damage.

- leaf chewers [Coleoptera and Orthoptera]

slide79

Insect damage.

- leaf miners [Diptera]

slide80

Insect damage.

- fruit and flower feeders [Diptera and Hymenoptera]

slide81

Insect damage.

- sap suckers [Hemiptera and “Homoptera”]

slide82

Insect damage.

- gall makers [Diptera and Hymenoptera]

slide83

Insect damage.

- stem and twig damagers [Orthoptera and “Homoptera”]

slide84

Insect damage.

- trunk and branch borers [Coleoptera]

slide85

Insect damage.

- root and bulb feeders [“Homoptera”]

slide87

Garden foes.

A. Caterpillars [Lepidoptera]

slide89

Garden foes.

B. Beetles [especially weevils; Coleoptera: Curculionidae]

slide91

Garden foes.

C. Yellow jackets [Hymenoptera: Vespidae]

slide92

Garden foes.

D. A plethora of sapsuckers

slide94

Garden foes.

D1. Aphids [Hemiptera: Aphidae]

slide96

Garden foes.

D2. Psyllids [Hemiptera: Psyllidae]

slide98

Garden foes.

D3. Mealybugs [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae]

slide100

Garden foes.

D4. Scale insects [many: Hemiptera]

slide102

Garden foes.

D5. Leafhoppers, treehoppers, spittlebugs [Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Membracidae, Cercopidae]

slide104

Garden foes.

D6. Stinkbugs [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae]

slide106

Garden foes.

D7. Lace bugs [Hemiptera: Tingidae]

slide108

Garden foes.

D8. Thrips [Thysanoptera]

slide110

Garden friends [predators].

Lady bird beetles [Coleoptera: Coccinellidae]

slide112

Garden friends [predators].

Ground beetles [Coleoptera: Carabidae]

slide114

Garden friends [predators].

Rove beetles [Coleoptera: Staphhylinidae]

slide116

Garden friends [predators].

Fireflies [Coleoptera: Lampyridae]

slide118

Garden friends [predators].

Lacewings (larva) [Neuroptera: Chrysopidae]

slide120

Garden friends [predators].

Lacewings (adult) [Neuroptera: Chrysopidae]

slide122

Garden friends [predators].

Hover flies [Diptera: Syrphidae]

slide124

Garden friends [predators].

Stink bugs [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae]

slide126

Garden friends [predators].

Assassin bugs [Hemiptera: Reduviidae]

slide127

Garden friends [predators].

Assassin bugs [Hemiptera: Reduviidae]

slide129

Garden friends [predators].

Mantids [Mantodea: Mantidae]

slide131

Garden friends [predators].

Ants [Hymenoptera: Formicidae]

slide133

Garden friends [predators].

Paper wasps [Hymenoptera: Vespidae]

slide135

Garden friends [predators].

Yellow jackets [Hymenoptera: Vespidae]

slide137

Garden friends [parasites].

Tachinid flies [Diptera: Tachinidae]

slide139

Garden friends [parasites].

Ichneumonids and Braconids [Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae and Braconidae]

slide140

Garden friends [parasites].

Many small wasps [Hymenoptera]