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Using Technology with Classroom Instruction That Works. January 2011. What is “Classroom Instruction That Works”?. Classroom Instruction That Works - Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement Written by: Robert J. Marzano , Debra J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock

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what is classroom instruction that works
What is “Classroom Instruction That Works”?
  • Classroom Instruction That Works - Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
  • Written by: Robert J. Marzano, Debra J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock
  • Published 2001
slide3

Meta-analysis: combines the results from a number of studies to determine the average effect of a given technique.

  • When conducting a meta-analysis, a researcher translates the results of a given study into a unit of measurement referred to as an effect size.
slide4

One of the primary goals of the McREL study was to identify instructional strategies that have a high probability of enhancing study achievement for all students in all subject areas at all grade levels.

a supporting book was published
A supporting book was published:
  • Using Technology with Classroom Instruction that Works
  • Written by: Howard Pitler, Elizabeth R. Hubbell, Matt Kuhn, Kim Malenoski
  • Published 2007
identifying similarities and differences1
Identifying Similarities and Differences

Generalizations:

  • Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences enhances their understanding of and ability to use knowledge
  • Asking students to independently identify similarities and differences enhances their understanding of and ability to use knowledge
  • Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge
  • Identification of similarities and differences can be accomplished in a variety of ways and is a highly robust activity
identifying similarities and differences2
Identifying Similarities and Differences

Recommendations:

  • Teach students to use comparing, classifying, metaphors, and analogies when they identify similarities and differences
  • Give students a model of the steps for engaging in the process
  • Use a familiar context to teach students these steps
  • Have students use graphic organizers as a visual tool to represent the similarities and differences
  • Guide students as they engage in this process. Gradually give less structure and less guidance
summarizing and note taking1
Summarizing and Note Taking

Generalizations:

  • To effectively summarize, students must delete some information, substitute some information, and keep some information
  • Verbatim note taking is perhaps the least effective way to take notes
  • Notes should be considered a work in progress
  • Notes should be used as study guides for tests
summarizing and note taking2
Summarizing and Note Taking

Recommendations for Summarizing:

  • Teach students the rule-based summarizing strategy
  • Teach students a variety of note-taking formats
  • Give students teacher-prepared notes
reinforcing effort and providing recognition1
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

Generalizations:

  • Not all students realize the importance of believing in effort
  • Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance
  • Abstract symbolic recognition (e.g., praise) is more effective than tangible rewards (e.g., candy, money)
reinforcing effort and providing recognition2
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

Recommendations:

  • Explicitly teach students about the importance of effort
  • Have students keep track of their effort and achievement
  • Personalize recognition
  • Use the Pause, Prompt, and Praise strategy
  • Use concrete symbols of recognition
homework and practice1
Homework and Practice

Generalizations:

  • The amount of homework assigned to students should be different from elementary to high school
  • Parental involvement in doing homework should be kept to a minimum
  • The purpose of homework should be identified and articulated
  • If homework is assigned, it should be commented upon
  • Mastering a skill or process requires a fair amount of focused practice
homework and practice2
Homework and Practice

Recommendations:

  • Establish and communicate a homework policy
  • Design homework assignments that clearly articulate purpose and outcome
  • Vary approaches to providing feedback
nonlinguistic representation
Nonlinguistic Representation

Generalizations:

  • A variety of activities produce nonlinguistic representation
  • The purpose of nonlinguistic representation is to elaborate on knowledge
nonlinguistic representation1
Nonlinguistic Representation

Recommendations:

  • Use graphic organizers to represent knowledge
  • Have students create physical models of the knowledge
  • Have students generate mental pictures of the knowledge they are learning
  • Use pictures or pictographs to represent knowledge
  • Have students engage in kinesthetic activities representing the knowledge
cooperative learning1
Cooperative Learning

Generalizations:

  • Organizing groups based on ability levels should be done sparingly
  • Cooperative learning groups should be rather small in size
  • Cooperative learning should be used consistently and systematically but should not be overused
cooperative learning2
Cooperative Learning

Recommendations:

  • Use a variety of criteria to group students
  • Use informal, formal, and base groups
  • Keep the groups to a manageable size
  • Combine cooperative learning with other classroom structures
setting objectives and providing feedback1
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

Generalizations:

  • Setting instructional goals narrows what students focus on, but not too specific
  • Feedback should be “corrective” in nature and timely
  • Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback
setting objectives and providing feedback2
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

Recommendations for Setting Objectives:

  • Set learning objectives that are specific but flexible
  • Communicate the learning objectives or goals to students and parents
  • Focus feedback on specific types of knowledge
  • Use student-led feedback
generating and testing hypothesis
Generating and Testing Hypothesis

Generalizations:

  • The generating and testing of hypothesis can be approached as an inductive or deductive manner
  • Teachers should ask students to clearly explain their hypotheses and their conclusions
generating and testing hypotheses1
Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Recommendations:

  • Make sure students can explain their hypotheses and conclusions
  • Use a variety of structured tasks to guide students through generating and testing hypotheses
questions cues and advance organizers1
Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers

Generalizations:

  • Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers should focus on what is important rather than what is unusual
  • “Higher-level” questions and advance organizers produce deeper learning than “lower-level” questions and advance organizers
  • Difference types of advance organizers produce different results
questions cues and advance organizers2
Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers

Recommendations:

  • Teach students skimming as a form of advance organizer
  • Ask questions that elicit inferences
  • Ask analytic questions