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Classroom Instruction that Works. Relevant Research for Every Classroom. Classroom Instruction that Works. Overview (Lynn) What knowledge will students be learning? (Mark) What will be done to help student acquire and integrate knowledge? (Lynn) Overall Impact (Lori)

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classroom instruction that works

Classroom Instruction that Works

Relevant Research for Every Classroom

classroom instruction that works2
Classroom Instruction that Works
  • Overview (Lynn)
  • What knowledge will students be learning? (Mark)
  • What will be done to help student acquire and integrate knowledge? (Lynn)
  • Overall Impact (Lori)
  • Graphic Organizers (Mark)
  • What will be done to help student practice, review and apply this knowledge? (Mark)
  • How will you know? (Lynn)
purposes
Purposes
  • Provide an overview of the nine instructional strategies that research says are proven to be effective
  • Give examples of how these strategies can be incorporated into classrooms
resources references
Resources & References
  • What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action; Marzano (2003)
  • Classroom Instruction that Works: Research Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement; Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock (2001)
reflect
Reflect

To what extent does research guide instructional practice at your school?

current trends
Current trends
  • Educators are at a special place in time. The “art” of teaching is rapidly becoming the “science” of teaching.
  • Up until 30 years ago, teaching hadn’t been systematically studied.
  • In the 70’s researchers began to look at the effects of instruction on student learning.
the research
The research
  • Meta-analyses research combined the results from many studies to determine the average effect of a given technique.
  • Classroom Instruction that Works identifies those instructional strategies that have a high probability of enhancing student achievement.
where to begin planning targets of learning
Where to begin: Planning Targets of Learning

4 questions to address:

  • What knowledge will students be learning?
  • What will be done to help students acquire and integrate knowledge?
  • What will be done to help students practice, review, and apply this knowledge?
  • How will you know if students have learned this knowledge?
targets of learning the nine strategies
Targets of Learning & The Nine Strategies

Cooperative Learning, Homework and Practice, and Reinforcing Effort

What knowledge will the student be learning?

  • Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback

What will be done to help students acquire & integrate knowledge?

  • Questions, Cues, & Advance Organizers
  • Using Non-linguistic representation
  • Summarizing & Note-taking

What will be done to help students practice, review, and apply this knowledge?

  • Identify Similarities and Differences
  • Generating & Testing Hypotheses

How will you know if students have learned this knowledge?

setting objectives providing feedback
Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback

When planning for instruction, there are

two categories of knowledge to consider:

  • Information
  • Skills and Processes
setting objectives providing feedback13
Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback

The research base suggests:

  • That objectives are posted for students (kid-friendly)
  • The use of essential questions
  • That students need to know where they are going instructionally (goal setting)
  • Front loading a lesson provides a 28% gain in knowledge
setting objectives providing feedback14
Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback

The research base suggests:

  • Instructional goals narrow what students focus on
  • Students should personalize the teacher’s goals to become their own (Personal Learning Goals)
  • Feedback must be effective, timely, specific, and the student’s own
setting objectives providing feedback15
Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback

Significant findings -

Correcting papers and giving them back has no impact on student achievement

Simply telling students answers are

right/wrong actually has a negative

effect on achievement (-3%).

setting objectives providing feedback16
Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback

The research base suggests:

Students desire …

  • rapid response on tests and quizzes
  • immediate feedback
  • an example of an excellent answer
  • the ability to make revisionson their work
questions cues and advance organizers
Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers
  • Questions, cues, and advance organizers let students know what they are about to learn.
  • By focusing on key points, students know what to look for in the learning.
  • Advance organizers help students find patterns and make important connections in the learning.
questions cues and advance organizers18
Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers
  • Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual
  • Higher level questions produce deeper learning than “lower level” questions.
  • Waiting briefly before accepting responses from students has the effect of increasing the depth of students answers
non linguistic representations
Non-linguistic Representations

Non-linguistic representations help students acquire and integrate knowledge in various forms:

  • Graphic Organizers
  • Pictographs
  • Mental Images
  • Physical Representations
  • Kinesthetic Representations
summarizing and note taking
Summarizing and Note-Taking

Choose to teach these two skills

Explicitly

  • Summarizing
    • We teach students to delete some information, substitute some information, and keep some information
slide21

Summarizing Activity

PREKINDERGARTEN IN FLORIDA

Since the proposed constitutional amendment establishes prekindergarten learning opportunities for every four-year-old, it is important to review the major statutory requirements that were in place for prekindergarten programs. The statutory requirements were contained in s. 230.2305, Florida Statutes (2000).

Prekindergarten, as a separate program, does not currently exist in Florida. It has been incorporated into the School Readiness Program which encompasses most early education and child care programs. However, it is useful to examine prekindergarten as it existed before its repeal. From its inception in 1986 to its repeal effective January 1, 2002, the prekindergarten early intervention program was a discretionary program for three and four-year-old children administered by local school districts on school sites or through contracted programs. Each public school district was required to make reasonable efforts to accommodate the needs of children for extended day and extended year services without compromising the quality of the six-hour, 180-day prekindergarten program. Before its repeal, the prekindergarten program was funded annually with approximately $100 million in lottery dollars.

Eligibility Requirements

At least 75 percent of the children served by the prekindergarten program must have been economically disadvantaged four-year-old children of working parents, including migrant children or children whose parents participated in the welfare transition program. Up to 25 percent of the total number of children served could include three and four-year-old children who were abused, neglected, disabled, at-risk of school failure, or from migrant families. After these groups were served, families who were not economically disadvantaged could pay a fee for their child to attend a prekindergarten program.

An "economically disadvantaged" child was defined as a child eligible to participate in the free lunch program. Regardless of any change in a family's economic status or in the federal eligibility requirements for free lunch, a child who met the eligibility requirements were eligible until the child reached kindergarten age.

The statute also established a staff to child ratio of at least 1 adult to 10 children. The ratio could be increased up to a maximum of 1 adult to 15 children upon approval of a waiver from the Commissioner of Education. When individual classrooms were staffed by teachers, those teachers must have been certified in the appropriate field. Individual classrooms that were staffed by noncertified teachers must have been overseen by a certified teacher. Such classrooms must have been staffed by at least one person who had a child development associate credential (CDA) or an associate in science degree in early childhood education.

summarizing and note taking22
Summarizing and Note-Taking
  • Note-Taking - the research base suggests:

-Verbatim note-taking is, perhaps, the

least effective way to take notes

-Notes should be a work in progress

-Notes should be used as study guides

for tests

-The more notes, the better

reinforcing effort and providing recognition
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

The research base suggests:

  • Not all students realize the importance of believing in effort
  • Students can learn to change their beliefs to an emphasis on effort
  • Students need to see the relationship between effort and achievement
reinforcing effort and providing recognition24
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

The research base suggests:

  • They need to know their effort will make a difference
  • Recognition is a motivating force that propels students to greater effort
  • Recognition can happen at any time, not just when a learning target is attained.
reinforcing effort and providing recognition25
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

The research base suggests:

  • Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation
  • Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance
  • Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards
cooperative learning
Cooperative Learning

The research base suggests:

  • That this is a powerful research-based strategy that effectively engages students in learning
  • Groups work best if they are not grouped by ability (-23%)
  • Students put into groups of two show a 6% gain in knowledge. When put into groups of three to four, there is a 9% gain. Groups of five to seven show a loss (-1%).
homework and practice
Homework and Practice

The research base suggests:

  • Homework should be used as a form of practice designed for application of knowledge
  • Homework for young children should be assigned for the purpose of developing study habits and involving parental support
homework and practice28
Homework and Practice

The research base suggests:

  • Students need to understand the purpose of homework and how it is related to knowledge they are learning
  • Without practice, little long-term learning occurs (24 times of exposure & practice for learning)
identifying similarities and differences
Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • The basic thought processes found in identifying similarities and differences is found to be basic to human thought.
  • Learning is dependent on prior learning therefore it is humanly basic to ask, “How is this different from what I already know?”
identifying similarities and differences30
Identifying Similarities and Differences

Efficient learners develop this

habit of mind:

  • Select items to compare
  • Select the characteristic you wish to compare the items to
  • Explain how the items are similar and different in regards to the characteristics
identifying similarities and differences31
Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Effective tools include:
    • Venn diagrams
    • Comparison matrix
    • Classifying Activities
    • Concept Maps
    • Graphic Organizers
    • T Charts
    • Pro/Con Grids
    • Metaphors and Analogies
generating and testing hypotheses
Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Generating and testing hypotheses requires students to reason inductively and deductively.

  • Inductive: Facts Generalization
  • Deductive: Generalization Facts
generating and testing hypotheses33
Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Ways to initiate thinking

  • Inductive Reasoning
  • Deductive Reasoning
  • Problem Solving
  • System Analysis
  • Decision Making
  • Historical Investigation
  • Invention
targets of learning the nine strategies34
Targets of Learning & The Nine Strategies

Cooperative Learning, Homework and Practice, and Reinforcing Effort

What knowledge will the student be learning?

  • Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback

What will be done to help students acquire & integrate knowledge?

  • Questions, Cues, & Advance Organizers
  • Using Non-linguistic representation
  • Summarizing & Note-taking

What will be done to help students practice, review, and apply this knowledge?

  • Identify Similarities and Differences
  • Generating & Testing Hypotheses

How will you know if students have learned this knowledge?