Chapter 14: The Expansive Realm of Islam
Born 570 to merchant family in Mecca Orphaned as a child Marries wealthy widow c. 595, works as merchant Familiarity with paganism, Christianity and Judaism as practiced in Arabian peninsula Muhammad and His Message
Visions c. 610 CE Archangel Gabriel Monotheism – Allah Attracts followers to Mecca Muhammad’s Spiritual Transformation
The Judeo-Christian Foundations of Islam
IslamAn Abrahamic Religion • Muslims are strict monotheists. • They believe in the Judeo- Christian God, which they callAllah. • Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible, like the Qur’an, are the word of God. Dhimmi=Peoples of the Book
Abraham’s Genealogy HAGAR ABRAHAM SARAH Ishmael Isaac 12 Arabian Tribes Jacob Esau 12 Tribes of Israel
The Prophetic Tradition (25 In All) Adam Noah Abraham Moses Jesus Muhammad
Record of revelations received during visions Committed to writing c. 650 CE (Muhammad dies 632) Tradition of Muhammad’s life: hadith The Quran
The Qur’an • Muslims believe it contains the word of God. • 114 suras (chapters). • In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful. • Written in Arabic.
Muhammad’s monotheistic teachings offensive to polytheistic pagans Economic threat to existing religious industry Denunciation of greed affront to local aristocracy Conflict at Mecca
Muhammad flees to Yathrib (Medina) 622 CE Year 0 in Muslim calendar Organizes followers into communal society (the umma) Legal, spiritual code Commerce, raids on Meccan caravans for sake of umma The Hijra
Attack on Mecca, 630 Conversion of Mecca to Islam Destruction of pagan sites, replaced with mosques Ka’aba preserved in honor of importance of Mecca Approved as pilgrimage site Covered in kiswah (“robe”) annually Muhammad’s Return to Mecca
The Five Pillars of Islam
1. The Shahada • The testimony. • The declaration of faith: There is no god worthy of worship except God, andMuhammad is HisMessenger [or Prophet]. 1
2. The Salat • The mandatory prayers performed 5 times a day:* dawn* noon* late afternoon * sunset * before going to bed • Wash before praying. • Face Mecca and use a prayer rug. 2
2. The Salat • The call to prayer by themuezzin in the minaret. • Pray in the mosque on Friday. 2
3. The Zakat • Alms giving (charitable donations). • Muslims believe that all things belong to God. • Zakat means both “purification” and “growth.” • About 2.5% of your income. 3
4. The Sawm • Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. • Considered a method of self- purification. • No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan. 4
5. The Hajj • The pilgrimage to Mecca. • Must be done at least once in a Muslim’s lifetime. • 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year. 5
5. The Hajj • Those who complete the pilgrimage can add the titlehajji to their name. 5
“struggle” Against vice Against ignorance of Islam “holy war” Against unbelievers who threaten Islam Jihad
The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem Mount Moriah Rockwhere Muhammad ascended into heaven.
Codification of Islamic law Based on Quran, hadith, logical schools of analysis Extends beyond ritual law to all areas of human activity Islamic Law: The Sharia
Other Islamic Religious Practices • Up to four wives allowed at once. • No alcohol or pork. • No gambling. • Three holiest cities in Islam:* Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem.
No clear to successor to Muhammad identified Abu Bakr chosen to lead as Caliph Led war against villagers who abandoned Islam after death of Muhammad The Caliph
The Spread of Islam • Easy to learn and practice. • No priesthood. • Teaches equality. • Non-Muslims, who were “Peoples of the Book,” were allowed religious freedom, but paid additional taxes. • Easily “portable” nomads & trade routes. • Jihad(“Holy War”) against pagans and other non-believers (“infidels”).
Great warriors with a strong cavalry. Byzantines and Persians weak from fighting each other. Unity in Islam, strengthened by the Sharia, coupled with fair treatment of conquered people, was inviting to many in defeated empires who desired more freedom and cohesiveness. Difficulties governing rapidly expanding territory The Spread of Islam
Countries with the Largest Muslim Population * Arabs make up only 20% of the total Muslim population of the world.
After the death of Muhammad, the caliph, or successor to the prophet was chosen. Abu Bakr was nominated as the first caliph. Abu Bakr would lead the first caliphate, known as the Rashidun or Patriarchal Caliphate. The choice of Abu Bakr caused significant dispute as many believed that Muhammad had chosen Alī ibn Abī Tālib, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad to succeed him. Served as caliph 656-661 CE, then assassinated along with most of his followers Successors To The Prophet
Abu Bakr was followed by three more caliphs, the last of which was AlīibnAbīTālib. It is with his succession that a division in Islam became more defined. Sunni Muslims believe that Ali was the fourth caliph, a position chosen based on ability to lead. The Shi’a (Shiites) believe that Ali is the first Imam, and that only blood descendants of Muhammad can lead the Muslim people. Successors To The Prophet
Rashidun Caliphate (622-661) Umayyad Caliphate (661-750) - Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba in Islamic Spain (929-1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258) - Fatimid Caliphate (910-1171) Mamluk Caliphate (1250-1517) The Ottoman Caliphate (1517-1924) Major Muslim Empires
From Meccan merchant class Brought stability to the Islamic community Capital: Damascus, Syria Associated with Arab military aristocracy The Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 CE)
Favoritism of Arab military rulers causes discontent Limited social mobility for non-Arab Muslims Head tax (jizya) on non-Muslims Umayyad luxurious living causes further decline in moral authority Policy toward Conquered Peoples
Abu al-Abbas Sunni Arab, allied with Shia, non-Arab Muslims Seizes control of Persia and Mesopotamia Defeats Umayyad army in 750 Invited Umayyads to banquet, then massacred them The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258 CE)
Diverse nature of administration (i.e. not exclusively Arab) Militarily competent, but not bent on imperial expansion Content to administer the empire inherited Dar al-Islam Growth through military activity of autonomous Islamic forces Nature of the Abbasid Dynasty
Persian influence Court at Baghdad Influence of Islamic scholars Ulama and qadis sought to develop policy based on the Quran and sharia Abbasid Administration
High point of Abbasid dynasty Baghdad center of commerce Great cultural activity Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-809 CE)
Civil war between sons of Harun al-Rashid Provincial governors assert regional independence Dissenting sects, heretical movements Abbasid caliphs become puppets of Persian nobility Later, Saljuq Turks influence, Sultan real power behind the throne Abbasid Decline
Spread of food and industrial crops Trade routes from India to Spain Western diet adapts to wide variety New crops adapted to different growing seasons Agricultural sciences develop Cotton, paper industries develop Major cities emerge Economy of the Early Islamic World
Historical precedent of Arabic trade Dar al-Islam encompasses silk routes ice exported from Syria to Egypt in summer, 10th century Camel caravans Maritime trade Formation of a Hemispheric Trading Zone
Scale of trade causes banks to develop Sakk (“check”) Uniformity of Islamic law throughout dar al-Islam promotes trade Joint ventures common Banking and Trade