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Principles of Immunology Antigens 2/9/06. “It is only when you give of yourself that you truly give.” K Gibran. Word List. Adjuvant Antigen Epitope Hapten Immunogen Xenogeneic. Antigens. Antigen- Anti body- gen erating substance Antigen-A substance that will bind to antibody

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principles of immunology antigens 2 9 06

Principles of ImmunologyAntigens2/9/06

“It is only when you give of yourself that you truly give.”

K Gibran

word list
Word List
  • Adjuvant
  • Antigen
  • Epitope
  • Hapten
  • Immunogen
  • Xenogeneic
antigens
Antigens
  • Antigen-Antibody-generating substance
  • Antigen-A substance that will bind to antibody
  • Immunogen-A substance that will elicit an immune response
antigenic macromolecules
Antigenic Macromolecules
  • Antigens are generally proteins or polysaccharides.
  • Lipids are not generally immunogenic (or antigenic) unless they are complexed with proteins or polysaccharides
types of antigens
Types of Antigens
  • Autoantigens-”self”
  • Alloantigens-”same species”
  • Heteroantigens-”different species”
  • T-cell dependent antigens-Requires T cell involvement; proteins
  • T-cell independent antigens-Does not require T cell involvement; polysaccharides
properties of immunogenicity
Properties of Immunogenicity
  • Degree of “foreignness”-Based on genetic relatedness
  • Molecular Size-Usually MW >100,000; <10,000 non immunogenic; 10,000-100,000 MW is imunogenetically variable
properties of immunogenicity1
Properties of Immunogenicity
  • Chemical composition-Proteins; Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure all contribute. Haptens
  • Ability to be processed by APCs- Function of size
biological influences on immunogenicity
Biological Influences on Immunogenicity
  • Genotype of host-Expression of MHC genes
  • Dose of route of antigen presentation
    • Immunological tolerance
    • Vaccines
    • Lymph or circulatory system
biological influences on immunogenicity1
Biological Influences on Immunogenicity
  • Adjuvants-Enhance immunogenicity
    • Potential mechanism
      • Ag persistence
      • Cell signaling or cytokine effect
      • Induction of inflammation
      • Lymphocyte stimulation
    • Types
      • Alum
      • Freund’s incomplete adjuvant
      • Freund’s complete adjuvant
epitopes
Epitopes
  • The active region of an immunogen (One antigen may have multiple epitopes)
ag t lymphocyte interaction
Ag/T Lymphocyte Interaction
  • Ternary complex
    • TCR
    • MHC II molecule
    • Antigen (peptide)

Also includes Co-receptor - CD4