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Principles of Immunology Cytokines 2/2/06. “Live simply so others can simply live.” Anonymous. Word List. Autocrine Endocrine Immunoglobulin superfamily Interleukin Paracrine Pleiotropy Stem cell factor. Chemical Structure. Low molecular weight proteins, <30kD

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principles of immunology cytokines 2 2 06

Principles of ImmunologyCytokines2/2/06

“Live simply so others can simply live.”

Anonymous

word list
Word List
  • Autocrine
  • Endocrine
  • Immunoglobulin superfamily
  • Interleukin
  • Paracrine
  • Pleiotropy
  • Stem cell factor
chemical structure
Chemical Structure
  • Low molecular weight proteins, <30kD
  • High affinity for receptors
  • Active in picomole amounts
chain of cytokine action
Chain of Cytokine Action

Stimulus>Cytokine-producing cell>

Cytokine>Target cell>Receptor>

Biological effect(s)

names of cytokines
Names of Cytokines
  • Source
    • e.g.,Lymphokines
  • Function
    • e.g.,Chemokines
  • Intercellular action
    • e.g., Interleukins
action of cytokines
Action of Cytokines
  • Autocrine
    • Affects the generating cell (self)
  • Paracrine
    • Affects cells in the immediate vicinity
  • Endocrine
    • Affects cells remote from the secreting cell
action of cytokines9
Action of Cytokines
  • Pleiotropy
    • Affects multiple cell types
  • Redundancy
    • Multiple cytokines affects cells of the same type
  • Synergy
    • Cytokines acting in concert on the same cell
  • Antagonism
    • Competing actions
  • Cascading
    • Cytokines acting sequentially
cytokine generating cells
Cytokine-generating Cells
  • Innate immunity
    • Macrophages
    • Endothelial cells
    • Fibroblasts
  • Adaptive immunity
    • T lymphocytes
    • Macrophages
    • NK cells
cytokine receptors
Cytokine Receptors
  • Ig super family
  • Class I- hematopoietin
  • Class II-interferon
  • TNF
  • Chemokine
cytokine receptors19
Cytokine Receptors
  • Multimeric receptors
  • Common signal-transducing subunits
  • Unique high affinity subunits
  • High affinity subunits associated with activation of target cell
signal transduction
Signal Transduction
  • Initiated by cytokine binding
  • Activates JAK (Janus kinase)
  • Phosphorylation of tyrosine
  • Binding of STAT(Signal transducers and activators of transcription)
  • Translocation of STAT to cell’s DNA
  • Transcription of specific target genes
role of cytokines in hematopoiesis
Role of Cytokines in Hematopoiesis
  • SCF (Stem cell factor)
  • GM-CSF (Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor)
  • IL-3 (Interleukin 3)
  • IL-5 (Interleukin 5)
  • IL-7 (Interleukin 7)
  • IL-11(Interleukin 11)
cytokines in the immune response
Cytokines in the Immune Response
  • Innate immune response
    • IL 1-(Macrophage)-fever, capillary effects
    • IL 6-(Macrophage)-adaptive immunity via B cells
    • IL 12(Macrophage)-adaptive immunity via T helper cells
    • TNF (Macrophage)-capillary effects, activates neutrophils
    • IFN alpha (Macrophage)-multiple effects
    • IFN beta (Fibroblasts)-multiple effects
cytokines in the immune response25
Cytokines in the Immune Response
  • Adaptive immune response
    • IL 2-(T cells)-multiple effects)
    • IL 4-(T cells & mast cells)-T cell differentiation, IgE production
    • TGF beta –(T cells, macrophages)-inhibits adaptive immune response
    • IFN gamma-(T cells, NK cells)-Macrophage activation
subsets of t helper cells
Subsets of T helper Cells
  • T helper 1
    • IgG production/Complement fixation
    • Macrophage activation
    • DTH
    • CTL production
  • T helper 2
    • IgE production
    • Eosinophils
slide29
Cytokine antagonism and viral diseases
  • Using cytokines therapeutically