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Behaviour for Learning. Salliann Coleman November 2012. Behaviour can be an area where we expect so much and teach so little Galvin, Miller and Nash ( 1999) If you think you are too small to make a difference try sleeping in a room with a mosquito

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Behaviour for learning

Behaviour for Learning

Salliann Coleman

November 2012

Behaviour can be an area where we expect so much and teach so little

Galvin, Miller and Nash ( 1999)

If you think you are too small to make a difference try sleeping in a room with a mosquito

African proverb

Teachers standards
Teachers so little’ Standards

7. Manage behaviour effectively to ensure a good and safe learning environment

• have clear rules and routines for behaviour in classrooms, and take responsibility for promoting good and courteous behaviour both in classrooms and around the school, in accordance with the school’s behaviour policy

• have high expectations of behaviour, and establish a framework for discipline with a range of strategies, using praise, sanctions and rewards consistently and fairly

• manage classes effectively, using approaches which are

appropriate to pupils’ needs in order to involve and motivate them

• maintain good relationships with pupils, exercise appropriate authority, and act decisively when necessary.

Behaviour and discipline in schools
Behaviour and Discipline in Schools so little

  • Good order is essential in a school if children are to be able to fulfil their learning potential. Poor and disruptive behaviour in the classroom reduces children’s ability to concentrate and absorb information; and it unsettles children and causes immense stress for teachers.

  • The Association of Directors of Children’s Services stated that “improved standards of behaviour lead to improved attainment and well-being outcomes for children and young people”

  • Poor behaviour also has an impact on learning. According to a survey of NASUWT members in March 2009, low-level disruption was leading to the loss of an average of thirty minutes teaching time per teacher per day.

  • We note that the OECD’s Teaching and Learning International Survey

    (TALIS) in 2009 suggested that, across 23 countries researched, as

    much as 30% of teaching time was lost due to poor pupil behaviour.

  • Ofsted told us that in schools in which behaviour standards were judged as being inadequate, learning was “too often hindered by poor concentration, persistent low-level misconduct and, sometimes, by more serious disruption involving a minority of pupils”.

    CESC (2011) Behaviour and Discipline in schools

Recent Review…. so little

The endemic problem that we have had for far too long is that we are looking at the

child and what is wrong with the child, not looking at what is wrong with the

learning environment. [...] anyone who ran a business by trying to decide what was

wrong with their customers rather than what was wrong with their services would

soon be out of business.

Curriculum organisation can […] have a significant impact on pupil behaviour. The

NUT believes that head teachers and senior colleagues should work collaboratively

and in consultation with teachers in order to design coherent curriculum models

which can meet the needs of all children. Such models should be based on teachers’

professional judgement and knowledge of their pupils

The school behaviour policy, which should be discussed by all members of the school

community, especially staff and pupils and not just considered by Governors as a

paper exercise, is of paramount importance to the effectiveness of behaviour

management in schools…..

A good school behaviour policy, agreed and communicated to all staff, governors,

pupils, parents and carers, consistently applied, is the basis of an effective approach

to managing behaviour.

Behaviour andDiscipline in Schools House of Commons Education committee Volume 1

26th January 2011

Powell S, Tod J (2004) A systematic review of how theories so littleexplain learning behaviour in school contexts.

So what is behaviour for learning
So what is behaviour for learning? so little

Behaviour for learning is about relationships which enable children to participate in school life and that of the wider community; to work and collaborate with others showing respect and empathy; to access the curriculum developing motivation for and a love of learning.

This involves developing sound relationships with themselves (their self, their identity, their community), with others (collaboration, reflection, empathy, respect, dialogue) and with learning and the curriculum (resilience, persistence and motivation to gain knowledge and experience).

How patterns of behaviour develop
How patterns of behaviour develop so little

  • All behaviour reflects underlying needs and has a purpose

  • Behaviour is inextricably linked to emotions and perceptions

  • Behaviour is learned

  • Behaviour can change

Circles of intimacy
Circles of intimacy so little

Aspects of learning
Aspects of learning so little

  • Emotional

  • Social

  • Cognitive

  • Links back to fixed mindset idea

Self esteem
Self Esteem so little

  • Self-concept refers ‘to the composite ideas, feelings, and attitudes people have about themselves’ (Hilgard, Atkinson, and Atkinson, 1979: p.605).

  • Self-concept is also defined by Purkey (1988) as the sum of a complex, organized, and dynamic system of learned beliefs, attitudes and opinions that each person holds to be true about his or her personal existence.

  • We could then regard self-concept ‘as our attempt to explain ourselves to ourselves, to build a scheme (in Piaget’s terms) that organises our impressions, feelings and attitudes about ourselves’(Woolfolk, 2001: p.73)

Self concept
Self -concept so little

Self concept

Self –image Ideal self

Self esteem

Self fulfilling prophecy
Self fulfilling prophecy so little

  • The expectancy-confirmation cycle of self fulfilling prophecy ( Cooper 1979) as applied to educational settings has been a topic of interest since the 1960s.

Initial interaction with pupils
Initial interaction with pupils … so little

We automatically make rapid assessments of pupils on initial interaction.

  • What criteria do you think you apply in these situations?

  • Why do you think you use these?

    Chaplain, R. ( 2003) teaching without disruption in the primary school. London Routledge

And also
And also….. so little

Communication so little

The way that you communicate with others

affects how they feel and can have an

impact on their behaviour.

What you say, how you say it and your body

language are important

Communication so little

Body language- things to consider:

  • Is it positive?

  • Does it match our words?

  • Is it non confrontational?

Teacher s non verbal behaviour
Teacher's non verbal behaviour so little

  • Non verbal behaviour has the potential to play a unique role in teaching because messages that are not conveyed through talk may be conveyed through nonverbal means. (Neil 1991)

  • ‘The non verbal behaviour of the teacher has been shown to reflect their attitude towards the child or the lesson.’ (Goldin-Meadow, Kim and Singer 1999)

  • ‘Teachers can be reliably rated on scales of optimism, confidence, dominance, enthusiasm and warmth, ratings which correlate with student evaluations of effectiveness’ (Ambady and Rosenthal 1993)

Implications? so little

  • The use of non verbal language (gesture, mime, body language) is a powerful strategy to reinforce appropriate behaviour, and also to remind children what appropriate behaviour is, without interrupting the flow of a session.

  • However a mismatch between the teacher’s non verbal behaviour and speech may produce confusion and may contribute to inappropriate behaviour in the classroom

Language so little

  • Hughes and Vass ( 2001) consider the use of language in relation to pupil motivation and confidence and define three desirable forms of language:

  • The language of success

  • The language of hope

  • The language of possibility

Managing feedback
Managing feedback so little

Praise v positive feedback

Positive feedback places less emphasis on the evaluative element ( e.g.' good’, ‘well done’) and more on the descriptive element e.g. ‘ this group’s worked well together’ .

Importance of descriptive element is that it is factual

5 Rs so little

Relationships( & communication)

Rights Responsibilities

Rules Choices

Routines Negative Positive


Relationships so little

Good relationships underpin all successful behaviour management.

Consider the implications of this for your own practice – what examples can you think of which demonstrate the impact of teacher/pupil relationships………

Rights- so littlewhat do you understand to be teachers’ and pupils’ rights?Rules- what strategies would you use to develop an effective mechanism of rules?Routines- consider effective routines that you have observed. What made them effective?

Responsibilities so little

What do you think these might be?

Responsibilities for managing our own

feelings and behaviour….

Teachers’ responsibilities :

Children’s responsibilities:

5Rs so little

Work within this framework

  • It sets the climate for success

  • It builds confidence and self correction

  • It reduces confrontation and tension

  • It is an educational process

  • It is fair, reasonable and logical

  • It provides a platform for learning

Analysing behaviour
Analysing behaviour so little

The ABC approach.

There are many versions of this but

typically these 3 features exist:

A - antecedents

B - behaviour

C - consequences

Promoting and planning for positive behaviour
Promoting and planning for positive behaviour so little

Know and value your children

Build self esteem and self respect

Build a positive, secure class ethos

Have high expectations

Teach the behaviours which will enable children to meet the expectations

Use the language of choice to teach responsibility for behaviour

Use positive and motivational language

Be well organised – think ahead

Separate the behaviour from the child (Warnock 1978)

Keep the focus on primary behaviours

Actively build trust and rapport

Model the behaviour you want to see

Always follow up on issues

Work to repair and restore relationships

We must model the behaviour expected
We must model the behaviour expected….. so little

The profile of activities and engagement
The Profile of activities and engagement so little

  • Task

  • Authority

  • Recognition

  • Grouping

  • Evaluation

  • Time

Skills in managing the classroom context
Skills in managing the classroom context so little

  • Managing the physical setting

  • Managing the social structure

  • Managing the psychological setting

Practical aspects of behaviour management from bill rogers
Practical aspects of behaviour management from Bill Rogers so little

‘Three steps of Decisive discipline’

  • Preventative

  • Corrective

  • Supportive

Respond rather than react
Respond rather than react so little

Consider your response to this……

James grabs Sarah’s ruler and appears to hide it from her.

How would you respond?

Potential responses
Potential responses so little

  • ‘James, stop being childish and give Sarah her ruler back.’

  • ‘James, we ask before borrowing in this classroom.’

  • ‘James, you’re quite able to get on with your work, so return Sarah’s ruler and let her do the same’.

    Discuss effectiveness of these…..

Respond rather than react1
Respond rather than react so little

Reactive approaches tend to be ineffective

Think about your responses to small scale incidents. What messages do they convey:

  • About the pupil

  • About the classroom climate

  • About the purpose of the classroom

Charlie taylor s checklist
Charlie Taylor so little’s checklist…

A Life in Your Hands so little

Atremendous Power.

I’ve come to the frightening conclusion that

I am the decisive element in the classroom.

It’s my personal approach that creates the climate,

It’s my daily mood that makes the weather.

As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power

to make a child’s life miserable or joyous.

I can be a tool of torture

or an instrument of inspiration.

I can humiliate or humour, hurt or heal.

In all situations, it is my response that decides

whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated

and a child humanised or de-humanised.

Haim Ginott