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Learning Enduring change in behaviour Due to experience How something is done. Behaviour Procedures and actions performed Learning Non-learning What is done. Learning and Behaviour. Types of Learning. Habituation/sensitization Classical conditioning Operant conditioning

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learning and behaviour
Learning

Enduring change in behaviour

Due to experience

How something is done

Behaviour

Procedures and actions performed

Learning

Non-learning

What is done

Learning and Behaviour
types of learning
Types of Learning
  • Habituation/sensitization
  • Classical conditioning
  • Operant conditioning
  • Observational/vicarious
adaptation
Adaptation
  • Changing conditions
  • Time scales
  • Learning only one type of adaptation
innate behaviours5
Innate Behaviours
  • Evolved
  • Environmental change
  • Re: Learning
    • Roots in innate behaviours
    • Parallels
  • Homeostasis, reflexes, tropisms, modal (fixed) action patterns
evolutionary theory
Evolutionary Theory
  • Voyage of the Beagle (1831-1836)
  • On the Origin of Species (1859)
  • Artificial, natural, and sexual selection
  • Adaptation to environment
natural selection
Natural Selection
  • Variation, inheritance, selection
  • Differential reproductive success
  • No intelligent design
  • Level of the individual
  • Change over generations
examples physical evolution
Examples: Physical Evolution
  • Skull
  • Bipedalism

Australopithecus afarensis (400cc), Homo erectus

(1200cc), Homo sapiens (1400cc)

examples behavioural evolution
Examples: Behavioural Evolution
  • Cooperation (e.g., food sharing, child rearing)
  • Pair bonding
  • Altruism
homeostasis
Homeostasis
  • Internal balance of the body
  • Drives
  • Regulatory drives
control system
Control System
  • Comparator
  • Reference input
  • Actual input
  • Action system
  • Output
  • Feedback system (closed-loop system)
  • Response lag
blood salinity

Comparator

Reference input

Output

Actual input

Action System

Blood Salinity

Eat more peanuts!

Drink water!

Eat peanuts!

reflexes
Reflexes
  • Stereotypic movement patterns
  • Reliably elicited by appropriate stimulus
  • Survival benefit
example grasping in infants
Example: Grasping in Infants
  • Humans, other primates
example eyeblink
Example: Eyeblink
  • Stimulus (e.g., airpuff)
  • Eyelid closes
example limb retraction
Example: Limb Retraction
  • Sharp rock, hot surface, etc.
  • Fast muscle contraction
  • Pulls limb away
reflexes17
Reflexes
  • Rapid response
  • Simple neural pathways
  • Sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron
reflex arc

sensory

neuron

interneuron

?

motor

neuron

Reflex Arc

muscle

tropisms
Tropisms
  • Movement, or change in direction, of the entire animal
  • Jacque Loeb
    • Geotropism
types of tropisms
Types of Tropisms
  • Kinesis
    • Movement random with respect to stimulus
  • Taxis
    • Non-random (directed) movement with respect to stimulus
kinesis

testing arena

heat

source

Kinesis
  • Movement in a random direction

hot

medium

fast

slow

cool

taxis

testing arena

heat

source

Taxis
  • Movement that bears some relationship to the location of a stimulus

hot

cool

the models
The Models
  • Kinesis
    • Random turn
    • Set move length
    • No more than 180° turn
    • Movement speed variable (fast, medium, slow)
  • Taxis
    • Turn so as to move away from heat
    • Set move length
    • No more than 180° turn
    • Movement speed fixed
modal fixed action patterns
Modal (Fixed) Action Patterns
  • Originally “fixed”; variable to some degree
  • Species specific, often state dependent
  • Sign stimulus (“releaser”) activates a dedicated neural system
  • To completion in sequence
graylag goose
Graylag Goose
  • Rolls displaced egg near its nest back with beak
  • Sign stimulus: displaced egg
  • Remove egg during sequence
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUNZv-ByPkU

www.cerebromente.org.br/n09/fastfacts/comportold_I.htm

stickleback

http://www.mylot.com/w/image/1967361.aspx

Stickleback

Bruno Cavignaux / Biosphoto

www.arkive.org/three-spined-stickleback/

gasterosteus-aculeatus-aculeatus/image-A23078.html

supernormal stimuli
Supernormal Stimuli
  • Extreme version of sign stimulus
  • Size, colouration, etc.
  • Preference sometimes detrimental
beetles on the bottle
Beetles on the Bottle
  • Gwynne & Rentz (1983)
  • Male Jewel beetles (Julodimorpha bakewelli)
  • Colour and reflection of bumps on bottle as supernormal stimuli for female beetle
general behaviour traits
General Behaviour Traits
  • Behavioural traits strongly influenced by genes
  • Not the same as Modal Action Patterns
    • GBTs more plastic than MAPs
    • No single sign stimulus
  • e.g., Species Specific Defense Reactions
    • Freeze, flee, fight
    • Mouse vs. bear
environmental interaction
Environmental Interaction
  • Not strictly genetically controlled
  • Susceptible to conditioning
  • e.g., twin studies
behavioural influence
Behavioural Influence
  • Selective breeding studies
  • Artificial or natural selection
  • e.g., morphine addiction in rats
  • e.g., Silver foxes
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ot2www2CF3Y
habituation and sensitization

Habituation and Sensitization

Simplest form of Learning

habituation and sensitization34
Habituation and Sensitization
  • Changes reflex response
  • Learning without new axons/synapses
  • Temporary effect at existing synapse
    • E.g., less neurotransmitter released from axon terminal
habituation
Habituation
  • Decease in a response following repeated stimulus presentation
  • Note: note everything that results in a decrease in response is habituation

Sensitization

  • Increase in a response following repeated stimulus presentation
example banana slug habituation
Example: Banana Slug Habituation
  • Eyestalk retraction
  • Touch back
  • Record time until eyestalks are fully re-extended
results

25

12.5

Time (sec.)

1

2

3

4

5

6

Trial

Results
  • Slug eyestalk re-extension times
  • Trial 1: 23 sec
  • Trial 2: 12 sec
  • Trial 3: 10 sec
  • Trial 4: 7 sec
  • Trial 5: 3 sec
  • Trial 6: 1 sec
example rat sensitization
Example: Rat Sensitization
  • 1. Gentle touch, no response
  • 2. Painful shock, flinch
  • 3. Gentle touch, flinch
habituation and sensitization39
Habituation and Sensitization
  • Generalization: treat other stimuli like learned stimuli
  • Discrimination: distinguish other stimuli from learned stimuli
spontaneous recovery
Spontaneous Recovery
  • Post habituation or sensitization
  • Return to original level of responding
  • Due to passage of time
limits of natural selection
Limits of Natural Selection
  • Adaptation relatively slow
  • Generally not helpful during a lifetime
  • Select best adapted individuals from each generation
  • Evolutionary time lag
  • Variation within species
learning evolved modifiability
Learning: Evolved Modifiability
  • Selective pressure
  • Learning
    • Going beyond innate behaviour patterns
  • All animals
  • Evolutionarily selected for
  • Allows individuals to adapt to rapid environmental change
nature and nurture
Nature and Nurture
  • Long debate
  • British Empiricists vs. Nativists
  • Not “either/or,” but “both”
  • Genes and environment constantly interact
  • Biology and experience both shape an organism’s behaviour patterns
the ability to learn
The Ability to Learn
  • A by-product of both heredity and experience
  • e.g., rats reared in complex environments
  • e.g., educational aids for infants