Europe’s Colonies in the Americas - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Europe’s Colonies in the Americas

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  1. Europe’s Colonies in the Americas October 5, 2009

  2. Spain & Portugal • Look for ocean route to Asia • Used to go around Africa • Christopher Columbus • Convinced Spain to pay for voyage • Aug. 1492: Leave • Expect to reach Asia in few weeks • Oct. 1492: Reached land • Thought Asia (East Indies) • Really Caribbean Islands • Claimed land for Spain • Called people Indians

  3. Tension for Spain & Portugal • Claimed any land they explored • Treaty of Tordesillas (TOR de See yas) • Spain: lands to WEST • Portugal: lands to EAST • Spain got most of Americas • Hundreds followed after Columbus • Gold, religion, Asia • Portugal got Brazil

  4. Spain • Magellan • Sail around the world • Left Spain with 5 ships • Made it around southern tip of South America • Named Pacific Ocean • Died in Philippines • 1 ship made it back to Spain • 1st to sail around world • France & Great Britain enter competition for land in Americas

  5. New Spain • Mexico into Peru • 2 territories • Viceroy: ruler for each territory (in place of king) • Spain made all laws for colonies • Church, court, trade • Transfer spanish laws/ culture to Americas • Cabildos: govern towns • Set prices/ punish criminals

  6. Want to help parent country…Spain followed: • Mercantilism: export more than import • Sell more than buy • 2 roles of colonies • Supply raw materials to parent country • Only buy goods from parent country ***In return, parent country gives PROTECTION • 1st treasure to Spain • Incas & Aztecs • Gold burned down • Agriculture: wealth for Spain • Crops (sugar, coffee, etc.) sent to Spain • Pirates lurked in Carribean • Spain richest & most powerful

  7. Labor/ SlaveryOctober 6, 2009

  8. The Search for Labor • Spanish settlers NEED workers • Mines, plantations, & ranches • Encomienda system • Spanish has right to demand taxes or labor from people living on land • In return: Spanish pay Native Americans for their work, health, & teach Christianity • 4 out of 5 indians died during 1st year in mines • Bartolome de lasCasas: spoke out against misuse & mistreatment of Indians

  9. New Laws • 1542 • Reformed encomienda system • Banned enslavement of Native Americans • Indian populations fell dramatically • Death opened lands for Spanish to settle • Haciendas • Large plantations • Best land • Only least productive land left for Indians

  10. Slave System • Las Casas • Spoke out against mistreatment of Indians • Gave advice to Spain that he later regretted • Use Africans instead of Indians as slaves • Africans better suited for tropical weather • Roots of Slavery • Existed everywhere • Trade slaves for cloth & weapons

  11. Need for slaves • Plantations • Feed settlers & trade • Difficult to farm/ not easy work • Africans who arrive to Americas already survived: • Capture in Africa • Exposure to European diseases • Travel • Avg. age: 35 years old • DIED: voyage, overworked, poor food, unhealthy living conditions, etc. MYTH: AAs better suited for slavery

  12. Portugal & The Columbian ExchangeOctober 7, 2009

  13. Portugal has control of • Brazil • Asia • Africa • Focus on colonizing Asia & Africa first • 1530s • Focus on Brazil • Afraid Spain might take • Divided Brazil into 15 regions • Donatario: landowner/ lord for each region • Brought over colonists from Portugal to settle

  14. Cash crops in Brazil • Coffee, cotton, & sugar • Like Spain…Used Native Americans for slaves • Then switched to Africans • 40% of all Africans…sent to Brazil • 3.5 million Africans sent to Brazil (by 1850) • Exploring Americas • Going back & forth across Atlantic Ocean • Links the western & eastern hemispheres • Columbian Exchange: global exchange of people, goods, & ideas (between east & west hemisphere)

  15. Exchanges of people/ ideas go BACK & FORTH • People • Millions moved • Europeans BRING gov’t, laws, & religion to Latin America • Europeans TAKE BACK products/ ideas • Foods • Spain to Latin America • Corn, potatoes, chocolate, peanuts, tomatoes • Latin America to Spain • Chili peppers, papaya, pineapples • Diseases • Incas helped Europeans treat malaria (bark) • Spanish carried diseases to Americas • Smallpox, measles, flue • Native American population DOWN • 1519: 25 million • 1605: 1 million