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The Atlantic World, 1492-1800. I. Spain Colonizes the Americas. 1492 – Columbus sets sail in search of route to India Never reached India, “discovered” Americas for Spain Spain began turning lands of the Americas into colonies : Lands that are controlled by another nation

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I spain colonizes the americas
I. Spain Colonizes the Americas

  • 1492 – Columbus sets sail in search of route to India

    • Never reached India, “discovered” Americas for Spain

  • Spain began turning lands of the Americas into colonies:

    • Lands that are controlled by another nation

  • Other explorers

    • Pedro Alvares Cabral – claimed land that becomes Brazil for Portuguese

    • Ferdinand Magellan – sailed south around South America, sailed west through Pacific Ocean

      • Died in Philippines

      • Only 18 of 250 men made it back to Spain

I continued
I. Continued…

  • Conquistadors

    • Hernando Cortes – defeated Aztecs in 1521

      • Superior weapons, diseases from Old World (small pox, measles, typhus)

    • Francisco Pizarro – conquered Incan Empire in 1532

    • Francisco de Coronado – headed north to present-day United States in search of gold

  • Settling In

    • Spanish imposed their culture onto Natives

      • Forced conversion to Catholicism, feudal-like social/economic system

    • Large mestizo population develops – mix of Spanish and Native American

    • System of encomiendas enforced – natives were forced to work for Spanish landholders

      • Workers were abused, worked in harsh conditions

I continued1
I. Continued…

  • Spain becomes richest, most powerful nation in 16th century

    • Increased its wealth and military, increased territorial holdings into North America

  • Catholic priests became leaders in colonizing and converting in North America

    • Many, however, pushed for better treatment of native peoples

    • Encomienda system abolished in 1542 – moved towards African slavery as main source of labor

  • Native rebellions

    • Starting as early as Columbus’ arrival, natives resisted Spanish rule

    • 1680 – Pueblo Indians organized a rebellion that pushed the Spanish out of southwest U.S. for 12 years

Ii settlement of north america
II. Settlement of North America

  • England, France, and the Netherlands began competing with Spain and Portugal for dominance in Americas

  • France set up in modern-day Canada, known then as New France

    • Began moving south – by early 1700s, claimed what is now midwestern U.S., all the way to Louisiana

  • England’s first colony was founded in 1607 – Jamestown, Virginia

    • Opened the door to more settlers, mostly stayed along eastern coast

  • The Dutch establish New Netherland, profiting from the fur trade

    • Was slow to attract settlers

Ii continued
II. Continued…

  • Series of battles between European powers dominated the 17th and 18th centuries

    • 1664 – English drive out Dutch (surrendered without firing a shot)

    • 1754 – French and Indian War began

      • Was a part of a larger world conflict called the Seven Years’ War

      • French were defeated in 1763, England claimed all their territory in N. America

  • Native Americans

    • Came into conflict with English settlers over land and religion

      • Led to a series of wars and battles

      • 1675 – King Philip’s War was bloodiest on both sides

    • Disease killed more native people than warfare

Iii slave trade
III. Slave Trade

  • Slavery had already existed in Africa for centuries

    • Slavery among African societies common, represented wealth

    • Slaves had some rights, even held positions of authority

    • Arab merchants traded slaves to Asia beginning in 8th century

  • Portuguese the first to explore Africa

    • At first, more interested in gold than slaves

    • As Native American population dwindled, the need for other sources of labor increased in the Americas

  • Between 1500 and 1850, more than 12 million Africans shipped to Americas

    • Estimated 10-20% died along the way

      • Middle Passage – name of slave voyage to Americas

        • Overcrowded, unsanitary conditions

        • Often led to death, suicide, rebellions

    • Mostly men were shipped (tipped balance of African population)

    • Local African rulers worked with Europeans for trade of slaves/goods

Iii continued
III. Continued…

  • Directly linked to plantation and mining economies of Americas

    • Triangular trade – slaves to America, raw materials to Europe, European goods to Africa, cycle repeats itself

  • Impact of the Slave Trade

    • African families torn apart, women outnumbered men in many areas

    • Conflicts between African societies increased

    • Economies of American colonies may not have survived without the work of the slaves

    • Cultural blending – mix of African culture with that of the Americas/Europe

      • Religions – mixed Catholicism/Protestantism with traditional African beliefs (example: Vodun in Haiti)

Iii continued1
III. Continued…

  • Slave resistance and rebellion

    • Kept cultural heritage alive as a way of resisting

    • Worked slowly, broke tools, ran away

    • Open revolts occurred throughout Americas

      • Examples: Haitian independence movement, Nat Turner in U.S.

  • End of Slave Trade

    • Abolition of the slave trade came from a variety of reasons:

      • Enlightenment thinking

      • Christian revivalism/humanitarianism

      • Industrial revolution – less emphasis on agriculture labor

      • Slave trade less important/profitable than trade of other commodities

    • Last country to end slave trade – Brazil (1831)

Iv global economy
IV. Global Economy

  • Colonization of Americas created more opportunities for trade and commerce

    • A truly global economy emerged as goods (and people) are shipped worldwide

  • Columbian Exchange – global transfer of foods, plants, animals during colonization of the Americas

    • Agricultural products found in New World made their way to the Old World for first time

      • 2 most important from Americas: corn and potatoes

        • Played huge role in boosting world population

    • Americas received foods and animals not seen before

      • Examples: sugarcane, horses, cows

    • Diseases also part of exchange (mostly to the Americas)

Iv continued
IV. Continued…

  • Economic Revolution

    • Global trade created new economic systems and focus on wealth in growing nations

    • Mercantilism – belief that a country’s power depended on its wealth

      • Goal was to obtain as much wealth as possible

      • Wealth was obtained through export of goods

      • Colonies became important for nations to become self-sufficient and grow wealthy (access to raw materials, labor)

    • Capitalism – economic system based on private ownership and the investment of resources for profit

      • Individual merchants, not just governments, became very wealthy and powerful through trade

5 minute response
5-Minute Response

  • Choose one of the Social Studies Themes (political, social, religious, economic, technological) and describe in detail the changes that occurred in the Atlantic World in the 15th-18th centuries.