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European Colonization of the Americas (1492-1752). Chapter 2. Spanish Explorers and Colonies. Section 1. Objectives. Explain how the Spanish built an empire in the Americas. Discuss why the Spanish pushed for settlement in regions of North America.

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  • Explain how the Spanish built an empire in the Americas.
  • Discuss why the Spanish pushed for settlement in regions of North America.
  • Explore how natives resisted Spanish colonization.
spanish colonization of america
Spanish Colonization of America
  • The first Spanish settlement in North America was founded during the summer of 1565 by Pedro Menéndez, a Spanish commander.
  • It was located at St. Augustine, Florida.
  • It became a colony, or area settled by immigrants who continued to be ruled by their parent country.
building a spanish empire
Building a Spanish Empire
  • Beginning with Christopher Columbus who traveled to the Americas from 1492-1504, Spanish explorers followed in his footsteps laying claim and discovering the New World.
juan ponce de le n
Juan Ponce de León
  • A young hidalgo, or Spanish gentleman, who explored Florida in search for the “Fountain of Youth.”
vasco n ez de balboa
Vasco Núñez de Balboa
  • In 1513 Balboa led a group across the isthmus of Panama becoming the first European to see the Pacific Ocean.
  • An isthmus is a narrow strip of land.
ferdinand magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
  • After a 3 year voyage, Magellan became the First European to circumnavigate the Earth.
  • Portuguese born Magellan died during a conflict in the Philippines about 2/3 of the way through the voyage.
reconquista and a pattern of conquest
Reconquista and a Pattern of Conquest
  • Many of the Spanish who came to the new world gained experience fighting the Muslims in Spain over a 700 period known as the Reconquista.
  • This would determine how the Spanish would treat the Native Americans they encountered.
the conquistadors
The Conquistadors
  • Out of the traditions of the Reconquista came the conquistadors or Spanish conquerors who came to the new world for God, gold, and glory.
hern n cort s
Hernán Cortés
  • In 1519, Cortés launched a campaign to conquer the Aztecs of Mexico.
  • With about 600 men and supported by various Native groups, Cortés brought the Aztec Empire with all of its gold under his command.
fransisco pizarro
Fransisco Pizarro
  • In 1527, Pizarro explored and conquered the Incan Empire.
  • Along with his brother he later governed his extensive South American domain.
the encomienda system
The Encomienda System
  • To control its American colonies the Spanish utilized a harsh system of forced labor known as the encomienda system.
  • Under this system natives were required to farm, ranch, or mine for the profit of an individual Spaniard.
  • In return the Spanish were supposed to ensure the well-being of the natives.
  • Natives were often forced to convert to the Catholic religion.
  • Eventually the mixing of Spanish and Native blood created a mestizo class of people.
exploring north america
Exploring North America
  • Several conquistadors and explorers ventured into what is now the United States.
  • Consequently, Spain controlled much of North America including parts of Texas, California and other states.
alvar n ez cabeza de vaca and estevanico
Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and Estevanico
  • Shipwrecked in 1528 of the coast of Texas, Cabeza de Vaca, a hidalgo and Estevanico an enslaved African, traveled among Natives for 8 years until meeting up with other Spaniards.
  • Eventually Cabeza de Vaca was killed in New Mexico by natives.
fransisco v squez de coronado
Fransisco Vásquez de Coronado
  • Traveled through the present day American southwest in search of the fabled Seven Golden Cities of Cebola.
  • Coronado explored the Colorado River and parts of New Mexico.
hern n de soto
Hernán de Soto
  • A Spanish hidalgo, de Soto was also after the fame seven cities.
  • He traveled through many of the southern United States and was most likely the first European to cross the Mississippi River.
presidios the mission system
Presidios &the Mission System

The Spanish controlled many areas in the New World which were inhabited by hostile Natives including areas of Florida, New Mexico, and California.

To protect their outposts and colonies, the Spanish built presidios or forts to launch attacks and dispatch missionaries.

The Spanish mission system also established congregaciones in which natives would farm, live and worship like CatholicEuropeans

pueblo revolt of 1680
Pueblo Revolt of 1680
  • In 1680, the Pueblo people of New Mexico under the leadership of Popé led a successful rebellion against Spanish colonists.
  • Similar rebellions were led in Florida, discouraging Spaniards from settling these areas in large numbers.