Levels of organization in an organism • Chemicals make up cells… • Which make tissues… • Organs… • Systems… • And finally, the individual organism
Levels of organization in ecology • In Ecology, we begin with the individual and move through the levels to the planet, Earth
Ecosystem • Collection of all organisms (biotic) that live in a particular area, together with their non-living (abiotic) parts of an environment • Examples of abiotic factors?? • Climate, soil type, amount of rainfall, etc Southern Pine Ecosystem Fort Bragg, North Carolina
Biomes • A group of ecosystems that have the same climates, and similar dominant communities
Biosphere • Contains the combined portion of the planet in which all life exists, including land, water, and air (atmosphere) • specifically… 11 kilometers below ocean surface to 8 km above Earth’s surface
Niche • It’s place within it’s habitat • “its job” or the role that an organism plays in the ecosystem • Includes factors such as what the organism eats, how it eats, and what eats it
Warblers and their niches Cape May Warbler Feeds at the tips of branches near the top of the tree Bay-Breasted Warbler Feeds in the middle part of the tree Yellow-Rumped Warbler Feeds in the lower part of the tree and at the bases of the middle branches Spruce tree
Competition • When organisms attempt to use the same resources • Water • Space • Food
Competitive exclusion principle • Resource: food, water, and anything else an organism needs to survive • Two species cannot occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time because of resource limitations.
Predator-prey relationship • Mechanism of population control in which a population is regulated by predation • Predation: interaction in which one organism captures and feed on another organism
Predation • Orca Seal Predation
Symbiosis • (living together) relationship formed from a close association with another organism • Symbiont • Resides within the host • Host • Houses another organism
Mutualism • Symbiont helps the host • Symbiont and host both benefit…both are well adapted • Examples:
Symbiosis: Mutualism • Both species benefit from the relationship Sea urchin requiring defense and drift red algae requiring reproductive assistance
Cheerleader crab and Anemones Go HAWKS! Mutualism in the Cheerleader crab, Lybia tesselata, which carries a pair of small anemones in its claws. When approached by a predator it waves these around presenting the stinging tentacles to deter the marauder. The anemones benefit from the small particles of food dropped by the crab during feeding.
Fig and wasp - mutualism Wasps ready to emerge from a fig. The wasps will leave to pollinate fig flowers, which are inside the fig. Notice the long ovipositor which pierces the green fig to lay eggs and pollinate at the same time. Their larvae will thrive inside the fig, protected.
Lichen - mutualism A lichen on a twig. It’s lichen it there.
Mutualism of ant, caterpillar, and Acacia plant • The caterpillars have nectar organs the ants drink from. • The ants allow the caterpillars to eat acacia leaves. • The ants provide protection for both acacia plant and caterpillar
Mycorrhizae: mutualism • Fungus that grows from the tips of plant roots • Fungus absorbs water and minerals for plants. • Plant produces sugars for fungus. • Root cells provide “home”
Commensalism • Symbiont benefits, but host is neither helped nor harmed • Examples: Barnacles on a whale Orchids living in the trees
Symbiosis: Commensalism • One member of the association is helped while the other is neither helped nor harmed Shrimp riding around on sea slug
Symbiosis: Parasitism • One organism lives in or on another organisms (the host) and consequently harms it
Scavenger-carrion relationship • Carrion: dead and decaying flesh • Scavenger: organism that feeds on carrion
Vultures and carrion Carrion (from the Latin caro, meaning meat) refers to the carcass of a dead animal.
Endosymbiosis • Two species interact with one living within the another • Symbiont: usually provides nutrition to host • Host: usually provides protection
Symbionts: O O O O O O Hosts: O O O O O O _____ Types?
For Understanding Commensalism Mutualism Parasitism Endosymbiosis Scavenger- carrion symbiosis
Succession • gradual change in species, usually following some disturbance • Primary S. = occurs on land where no previous growth has occurred • Ex: after the moving glacier leaves bare rock
Succession: • Secondary S = occurs in areas where there has been previous growth, that has been disrupted • Examples of disruptions = fire, farming, logging, etc
For Understanding Describe how events and processes that occur during ecological succession can change populations and species diversity
What events have occurred in and around Pflugerville that may initiate succession? Making Connections
What is a biome? • A complex of terrestrial communities that covers a large area • Characterized by certain soil and climate • Plants and animals have special adaptations that make them especially suited for their particular biome. • Seepages 100-104 for characteristics of each biome.
Adaptation • An organism whose variations can withstand the environmental factors is said to be “adapted” to the environment • An organism that can compete with others of its species for mates & resources is also adapted • How are each of the organisms seen here adapted to their ecosystem?
Geographic distribution of biomes Temperate grassland Tropical rain forest Temperate forest Tundra Northwestern coniferous forest Mountains and ice caps Tropical dry forest Desert Temperate woodland and shrubland Tropical savanna Boreal forest (Taiga)
Tropical Rain Forests • Most diverse life • Warm temperatures • Most annual rainfall Of all biomes
Tropical Dry Forest • Warm • Alternating wet and dry periods • Tall trees with dense canopy • Tigers, monkeys, elephants snakes, lizards • Parts of Africa, south and Central America, Australia
Tropical Savannah • Warm temps • Seasonal rainfall • Tall grasses • Drought and fire resistant shrubs • Lions, leopards, cheetahs, giraffes, antelope, zebra • Large parts of Africa, southern Brazil, • N Australia
Desert • Most arid (driest) biome • Rainfall is the most dominant limiting factor • Can have the greatest daily temperature range