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Theory and Nature of War. Modern Theorists I. Latter 19 th Century Theorists: Prussia. Points to remember The adaptations of the Prussian Military Revolution Characteristics of the professionalism race Problems with the Schlieffen Plan GGS needed to acknowledge.

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theory and nature of war

Theory and Nature of War

Modern Theorists I

latter 19 th century theorists prussia
Latter 19th Century Theorists: Prussia
  • Points to remember
    • The adaptations of the Prussian Military Revolution
    • Characteristics of the professionalism race
    • Problems with the Schlieffen Plan
    • GGS needed to acknowledge
overview
Overview
  • Maritime strategy in early 20th Century
  • Influence on strategic thinking today
educational objectives
Educational Objectives
  • Compare the basic theories
  • Describe how they were influenced by earlier strategists
  • Relate “Forward…From the Sea” to these theories
  • Explain the use of sea power as an element of military force
  • Identify six elements that influence sea power
background
Background
  • Late 19th century
  • Rising power and a declining power
  • Two views of Britain’s success
  • Two historians with different
    • approaches to the past
    • views of sea power
analysis of mahan and corbett
Analysis of Mahan and Corbett
  • The Fundamental Questions of Military Theorists
    • Influence of historical setting?
    • Use of historical analysis?
    • What are his ideas?
    • Build on or react to previous theorists?
    • Affect on later theorists and practitioners of war?
alfred thayer mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
  • Background
    • Dennis Hart Mahan
    • Major works
    • Insight
    • Purpose
mahan s significance
Mahan’s Significance
  • First general theory of war at sea
  • War at sea is a political act
  • Defined mission for the Navy
  • Boosted PME
alfred thayer mahan10
Alfred Thayer Mahan
  • Influence of historical setting?
strategic environment
1840-1865

Expansion West

War with Mexico

Civil War

Industrialization

1866-1914

Closing of the Frontier

Imperialism

Spanish-American War

Isthmian Canal

Naval Competition

Strategic Environment
strategic environment12
Strategic Environment
  • Technological Change
    • Sail to Steam
    • Armor
    • Ordnance
  • U.S. Navy Revival
alfred thayer mahan13
Alfred Thayer Mahan
  • Use of historical analysis?
alfred thayer mahan14
Alfred Thayer Mahan
  • What are his ideas?
    • The fundamentals of strategy
    • Civil-military relations
    • The importance of material and moral factors
    • The influence of individuals on events
    • Relationship between offense and defense
    • The importance of chance
fundamentals of strategy
Fundamentals of Strategy
  • Thesis: Mastery of the seas made nations victorious in war and prosperous in peace.
    • Not all nations possessed the raw ingredients of sea power were.
    • Principles of strategy included
      • Lines of communication
      • Central position Interior lines
      • Key: concentration for a decisive victory
mahan s theory of sea power
Mahan’s Theory of Sea Power
  • “That overbearing power on the sea which drives the enemy’s flag from the sea or allows it to appear only as a fugitive;
  • and which by controlling the great common, closes the highway by which commerce moves to and from the enemy’s shores.”
mahan s theory of sea power17
Mahan’s Theory of Sea Power
  • Characteristics of a maritime power
    • 1. Geographic position
    • 2. Physical conformation
    • 3. Extent of territory
    • 4. Number of population
    • 5. National character
    • 6. Character of the government
mahan s theory of sea power18
Mahan’s Theory of Sea Power
  • Production
  • Shipping
  • Colonies
mahan s theory of sea power19
Mahan’s Theory of Sea Power
  • Battleships and Merchantmen
  • Sea Lines of Communication
  • Overseas Bases
  • Concentration of Forces
  • Decisive Battle
mahan s theory of sea power20

Mahan’s Theory of Sea Power

Battleships and Merchantmen

Sea Lines of Communication

Overseas Bases

Concentration of Forces

Decisive Battle

mahan s theory of sea power21
Mahan’s Theory of Sea Power
  • Command of the Sea through naval superiority.
  • That combination of maritime commerce, overseas possessions, and privileged access to foreign markets that produces national wealth and greatness.
principles of naval warfare
Principles of Naval Warfare
  • Central Position
  • Interior Lines
  • Secure SLOCs
additional principles of naval warfare
Additional Principles of Naval Warfare
  • Concentration of Forces: “Never divide the fleet”
  • Offensive Operations Superior to Defensive
  • Overseas Bases
  • Decisive Battle (vice Commerce Raiding)
  • Blockade After Command of the Sea Achieved
additional principles of naval warfare24

Additional Principles of Naval Warfare

Concentration of Forces: “Never divide the fleet”

Offensive Operations Superior to Defensive

Overseas Bases

Decisive Battle (vice Commerce Raiding)

Blockade After Command of the Sea Achieved

alfred thayer mahan mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan Mahan
  • Build on or react to previous theorists?
    • Jomini?
    • Clausewitz?
mahan the jominian
Mahan the Jominian
  • Scientific, Prescriptive
  • Enduring Principles
    • Objective - Enemy Battle Fleet
    • Concentrate Forces at the Decisive Point
    • Decisive Battle
    • Lines of Communication
alfred thayer mahan mahan27
Alfred Thayer Mahan Mahan
  • Affect on later theorists and practitioners of war?
mahan s influence
Mahan’s Influence
  • Read widely in both Europe and Japan
  • Shipbuilding and Expansion
  • Spanish-American War
  • Panama Canal
  • Wrote 20 books and over 137 articles
  • Read widely in both Europe and Japan
once said of mahan

Once said of Mahan…

“... the peculiar psychology of the Navy Department, which frequently seemed to retire from the realm of logic into a dim religious world in which Neptune was God, Mahan his prophet, and the United States Navy the only true church.”

- Henry L. Stimson

alfred thayer mahan31
Alfred Thayer Mahan
  • What are his ideas about
    • The fundamentals of strategy
    • Civil-military relations
    • The importance of material and moral factors
    • The ability of individuals to affect events
    • Relationship between offense and defense
    • The importance of chance in war
critique of mahan
Critique of Mahan
  • Use of history
  • Over-emphasis on sea power
  • Necessary v sufficient cause
mahan s relevance today
Mahan’s Relevance Today?
  • Merchant Marine
  • SLOCs, Overseas Bases
  • Concentration, Decisive Battle
  • Sea Power and Great Power
  • Sea Power and National Strategy
sir julian corbett
Sir Julian Corbett
  • Background
    • Briton
    • Works
    • Purpose
sir julian corbett35
Sir Julian Corbett
  • The Fundamental Questions of Military Theorists
    • Influence of historical setting?
    • Use of historical analysis?
    • What are his ideas?
    • Build on or react to previous theorists?
    • Affect on later theorists and practitioners of war?
sir julian corbett36
Sir Julian Corbett
  • Influence of historical setting?
sir julian corbett37
Sir Julian Corbett
  • Use of historical analysis?
the british way in maritime warfare
The British Way In Maritime Warfare
  • Limited, not absolute war
requirements for limited war
Requirements for Limited War
  • Object must be limited in area
  • Of limited political importance
  • Remote or capable of being isolated:
limited wars
Limited Wars
  • Maritime Nations
    • Eighteenth Century Wars of England
    • Crimean War (1854-1856)
    • Spanish-American War (1898)
    • Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
sir julian corbett41
Sir Julian Corbett
  • What are his ideas about?
    • The fundamentals of strategy
what a maritime strategy must do
What a maritime strategy must do
  • Support or obstruct diplomacy
  • Protect or destroy commerce
  • Further or hinder military operations ashore
corbett s trinity
Corbett’s Trinity
  • Support diplomacy
  • Protect or destroy commerce
  • Support or defeat shoreoperations
sir julian corbett44
Sir Julian Corbett
  • What are his ideas about?
    • Civil-military relations
sir julian corbett45
Sir Julian Corbett
  • What are his ideas about?
    • The importance of material and moral factors
sir julian corbett46
Sir Julian Corbett
  • What are his ideas about?
    • The ability of individuals to affect events
sir julian corbett47
Sir Julian Corbett
  • What are his ideas about ?
    • Relationship between offense and defense
sir julian corbett48
Sir Julian Corbett
  • What are his ideas about?
    • The importance of chance in war
sir julian corbett49
Sir Julian Corbett
  • What are his ideas about?
    • The fundamentals of strategy
    • Civil-military relations
    • The importance of material and moral factors
    • The ability of individuals to affect events
    • Relationship between offense and defense
    • The importance of chance in war
principles clausewitz
Principles: Clausewitz
  • All wars tend to the absolute
  • The object is enemy's army
  • Only the offensive matters
  • Napoleon, master of war
  • Cult of the decisive battle
blue water school
Blue Water School
  • Fleet engagements decisive
  • Command of the seas absolute
  • Battleships the key to victory
real command of the sea

Real Command Of The Sea

SLOCs, SLOCs, and SLOCs

the navy s projectile the army

The Navy’s Projectile: The Army

Small Forces,

Strategically Targeted

sir julian corbett54
Sir Julian Corbett
  • Build on or react to previous theorists?
sir julian corbett55
Sir Julian Corbett
  • Affect on later theorists and practitioners of war?
critique of corbett
Critique of Corbett
  • Applicability
  • Utility
issues for consideration
Jomini and Mahan

Concept of sea power

Guerre d’escadre

Navies vice Armies

Six Critical Elements

Corbett’s Basic Premise

Balanced Fleet Concept

Land vice Naval Warfare

Guerre de Course

Issues for Consideration
concept of sea power
Concept of Sea Power
  • Employment of the fleet
  • Forward…From the Sea
guerre d escadre
Guerre d’escadre
  • Large fleet of capital ships?
six critical elements
Six Critical elements

Characteristics of a Maritime Power

  • Geographic Position
  • Physical Conformation
  • Extent of Territory
  • Number of Population
  • National Character
  • Character of the Government
corbett
Corbett
  • Basic Premise
  • Concept of the balanced fleet
  • Fundamental difference between
    • Land Warfare
    • Naval Warfare
summary

Summary

Mahan and Corbett

points to remember
Points to remember:
  • Mahan’s beliefs
  • Corbett and sea control
  • FFS and Corbett and Mahan
  • Mahan’s Six General Conditions
finally
Finally
  • The other line always moves faster.
  • A Smith and Wesson beats four aces.