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WASTE MANAGEMENT. Chapter 19. Love Canal, New York When Waste is Not Disposed of Properly. 1942 to 1958 Hooker Chemicals Disposal Site 1953 Sold to Niagara Falls School Board (school, housing) 1976 Residents becoming sick 1978 Lois Gibbs leads outcry 1980 Declared Disaster Site

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waste management
WASTE MANAGEMENT

Chapter 19

Mr. Manskopf

Notes Also At www.manskopf.com

love canal new york when waste is not disposed of properly
Love Canal, New YorkWhen Waste is Not Disposed of Properly
  • 1942 to 1958 Hooker Chemicals Disposal Site
  • 1953 Sold to Niagara Falls School Board (school, housing)
  • 1976 Residents becoming sick
  • 1978 Lois Gibbs leads outcry
  • 1980 Declared Disaster Site
  • 2004 Taken off Superfund List
section 1 wasting resources
Section 1: Wasting Resources

Why should we care about solid waste?

How much waste does the U.S. produce?

What is in the garbage?

The throw away mentality: OUT of SIGHT… OUT OF MIND

solid waste
Solid Waste
  • Unwanted or discarded material that is not liquid or gas
  • Out of sight Out of Mind
  • No Waste In Nature

Two Reasons to Be Concerned:

  • Wasted Resources
  • Causes huge amounts of air, water, land pollution and soil erosion
wasting resources
Wasting Resources
  • Industrial and agricultural waste
  • Municipal solid waste

Fig. 24-2 p. 533

  • US: 11 billion metric tons/year
affluenza in action
Affluenza In Action
  • U.S. produces 1/3rd of world’s solid waste and buries ½ of it
  • Most waste comes from mining, oil, gas, ag., sewage, industry
  • Think about a simple product like a computer…how much waste produced to create it (Life Cycle)
municipal solid waste msw
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
  • 1.5% of Solid Waste is MSW
  • Between 1960 and 1990 per capita MSW grown 70%...why do you think that is?
  • 38% is paper, 12% yard waste, 11% food waste, 10% platics
  • E-Waste Growing FAST
msw continued
MSW Continued…

Garbologists findings

  • 50 year old newspapers still readable
  • Pork Chops decades old

WHY DO THEY NOT DECOMPOSE????.....what do things need to decompose

msw continued1
MSW Continued…

Enough disposable diapers each year linked together would go to moon and back 7 times

Enough office paper to build a wall 11 feet high between NYC and SF

what are the options for dealing with waste
What are the options for dealing with waste?
  • Waste management (high waste approach)

Waste is part of economic growth, lets manage negatives

  • Burying, burning, shipping
  • Waste prevention (low waste approach)

Before product is produced look to minimize life cycle

  • Reduce, reuse, recycle
six ideas for less waste
Six Ideas For Less Waste
  • Consume less: Do we Really NEED this?
  • Redesign products to use less resources: How can we make this product using less resources throughout their life cycle
  • Redesign to use and make less pollution: Toxic substances etc.
six ideas for less waste1
Six Ideas For Less Waste

4) Develop products that are easier to repair, reuse, remanufacture, compost or recycle

5) Design products to last longer

6) Eliminate or reduce packaging (nude packaging)

burning and burying
Burning and Burying

What are advantages and disadvantages of burning solid waste?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of burying solid waste?

burning waste
Burning Waste
  • Japan and Switzerland over 50%, U.S. about 16%
  • More than 280 project canceled in U.S. due to high costs, concern among citizens, air pollution etc.
burying wastes
Burying Wastes
  • Open dumps
  • Sanitary landfills
  • Leachate collection
  • Monitoring wells
  • Emit greenhouse gases (CO2 and methane)
sanitary landfill
Sanitary Landfill

Fig. 24-14 p. 547

nimby
NIMBY
  • Not In My Back Yardcommon with landfills and incinerators
section 2 minimizing waste
Section 2: Minimizing Waste

How can we reduce, reuse, recycle our waste?

what is reuse
What is REUSE?

Cleaning and using the material over and over again increasing the lifespan of the product

reuse benefits
Reuse: Benefits
  • Extends resource supplies
  • Saves energy and money
  • Reduces pollution
  • Create jobs
  • Reusable products
reuse costs
Reuse: Costs
  • Waste (especially e-waste) can contain harmful substances…especially heavy metals

Many eke out living scavenging for waste in large open dumps

some success
Some Success
  • 95% of Finland’s soft drink, beer, wine bottles reused
  • Germany about 3/4th are refilled
other examples of reuse
Other examples of Reuse…

Shopping bags and tool libraries

recycling
Recycling

What is recycling?

What is composting?

How should we recycle solid waste?

How much waste paper is being recycled?

How feasible is recycling plastics?

Why isn’t more reused and recycled?

what is recycling
What is recycling?

Reprocessing solid waste into new useful products

5 Categories in US Household Recycling

  • Paper Products
  • Glass
  • Aluminum
  • Steel
  • Some plastics
characteristics of recyclable materials
Characteristics of Recyclable Materials
  • Easily isolated from other waste
  • Available in large quantities
  • Valuable
recycling rates
Recycling Rates
  • Switzerland, Japan 50%
  • U.S. 30% up from 6.4% in 1960
  • 60-80% is achievable
wastepaper recycling
Wastepaper Recycling
  • Easy to recycle
  • Removing ink, glue coating and reconverting into pulp
  • 42% of world tree harvest is for paper
  • Currently U.S. recycles 49% of waste paper
  • Making paper has big enviro impact
slide46

How plastics are made

  • Recycling plastic is difficult chemically and economically
  • 10% in U.S. recycled
  • Different resins
  • Low cost of oil
  • Biodegradable plastics (bioplatics) offer hope
economics of recycling
Economics of Recycling
  • Paper, aluminum, steel are easy to recycle and make easy economic sense
  • CRITICS: 1) plenty of landfill space, 2) Glass and plastic expensive to recycle
  • Employs 1.1 million people
why we don t recycle more
Why we don’t recycle more
  • Enviro Costs not included (externalities)
  • Too few government subsidies
  • Tipping fees at landfills cheap
  • Price fluctuations for goods
  • Often don’t PAUT
  • Life cycle costs often not factored in
slide50

Did You Know?States with “bottle bills” (consumers receive a refund per returned bottle or can) have reduced their beverage container litter by 69–84% and total litter by 30–64%.

composting
Composting
  • Composting organic waste mimics nature
  • Only 5% of yard waste composted in U.S….could easily be raised to 35%
  • Compost used as fertilizer, topsoil and help restore eroded land
section 7 hazardous waste
Section 7: Hazardous Waste

What is hazardous waste?

What can we do with hazardous waste?

How can we detoxify waste?

What are advantages and disadvantages of burying hazardous wastes?

What are Brownfields?

what is hazardous waste
What is Hazardous Waste?

Any discarded solid or liquid that is toxic, ignitable, corrosive or reactive enough to explode or release toxic fumes.

  • 80-90% from developed countries
  • 72% from Petro-Chem
  • 22% mining
what is hazardous waste1
What is hazardous waste?
  • Ignitable: Can catch fire
  • Corrosive: Can damage or destroy metals
  • Reactive: Chemically unstable; can explode or produce fumes when combined with water
  • Toxic: Harmful or fatal when inhaled, ingested, or touched
slide57

Common sources of hazardous waste include batteries, cleaning agents, paints, and pesticides.

case study bhopal india
Case Study: Bhopal India
  • 1984 World’s worst industrial accident
  • Union Carbide pesticide plant explosion
  • Toxic cloud settled over region killing 23,000
  • 120,000 to 150,000 suffer chronic illnesses related to accident
hazardous waste disposal
Hazardous Waste Disposal
  • Landfills: Specifically designed to keep hazardous waste contained
  • Surface impoundment: Liquid waste poured into shallow lined pits; water evaporates and solid waste is transported elsewhere
  • Deep-well injection (see diagram on right): Wastes injected into deep, confined porous rock layers
brownfields
Brownfields

Abandoned industrial and other hazardous waste site

  • Factories, junk yards, gas stations
  • Usually older urban areas like Camden are full of them
brownfields1
Brownfields
  • Can be cleaned up and reborn as parks, industrial parks, etc.
  • First need to be cleaned
  • Some developers weary of taking risks and costs
slide65

One example of many in Camden: http://www.state.nj.us/dep//srp/brownfields/bda/n_camden.htm

case studies lead
Case Studies: Lead
  • Lead poisoning major problem in children

Primary Sources of Lead

  • Leaded gasoline (phased out by 1986)
  • Lead paint (banned in 1970)
  • Lead in plumbing
  • Progress is being made in reducing lead
case studies mercury
Case Studies: Mercury
  • Vaporized elemental Mercury
  • Fish contaminated with methylmercury
  • Natural inputs
  • Emission control
  • Prevention of contamination
case studies dioxins
Case Studies: Dioxins
  • Potentially highly toxic chlorinated hydrocarbons

Sources of Dioxins

  • Waste incineration
  • Fireplaces
  • Coal-fired power plants
  • Paper production
  • Sewage sludge
hazardous waste regulation in the u s
Hazardous Waste Regulation in the U.S.

What is RCRA?

What is Superfund?

hazardous waste regulation in the united states
Hazardous Waste Regulation in the United States
  • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

(RCRA)

  • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund)
  • National Priority List
  • Polluter-pays principle
slide73
RCRA

1976 Passed By Congress: amended 1984

  • ID Hazardous Waste and set standards
  • Companies that deal with Haz. Waste over 220 lbs. must get permits
  • Cradle to Grave tracking and submit proof to EPA
cercla
CERCLA

Commonly called Superfund

  • Passed in 1980 (NJ Congressman leaders)
  • Established tax on on chemicals to

1) ID abandoned dumps sites

2) Clean up groundwater

3) Establish NPL list for cleanups

cercla1
CERCLA
  • Responsible parties must pay
  • If no party can be found clean ups down using $ from tax on oil and chemical companies (tax expired 1995)
  • 1,250 NPL sites…113 in NJ
  • About 72% clean up underway avg. $20 million per site
cercla2
CERCLA
  • Some estimates 10,000 sites could cost $1 trillion…pollution prevention cheaper?
  • Toxic Release Inventory www.epa.gov/tri
polluter pays principle
Polluter Pays Principle
  • Who should pay for cleanup when responsible parties can not be found?
  • Currently tax payers
  • 1 in 4 Americans live within 4 miles of Superfund NPL site