WASTE MANAGEMENT Chapter 19 Mr. Manskopf Notes Also At www.manskopf.com
Love Canal, New YorkWhen Waste is Not Disposed of Properly • 1942 to 1958 Hooker Chemicals Disposal Site • 1953 Sold to Niagara Falls School Board (school, housing) • 1976 Residents becoming sick • 1978 Lois Gibbs leads outcry • 1980 Declared Disaster Site • 2004 Taken off Superfund List
Section 1: Wasting Resources Why should we care about solid waste? How much waste does the U.S. produce? What is in the garbage? The throw away mentality: OUT of SIGHT… OUT OF MIND
Solid Waste • Unwanted or discarded material that is not liquid or gas • Out of sight Out of Mind • No Waste In Nature Two Reasons to Be Concerned: • Wasted Resources • Causes huge amounts of air, water, land pollution and soil erosion
Wasting Resources • Industrial and agricultural waste • Municipal solid waste Fig. 24-2 p. 533 • US: 11 billion metric tons/year
Affluenza In Action • U.S. produces 1/3rd of world’s solid waste and buries ½ of it • Most waste comes from mining, oil, gas, ag., sewage, industry • Think about a simple product like a computer…how much waste produced to create it (Life Cycle)
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) • 1.5% of Solid Waste is MSW • Between 1960 and 1990 per capita MSW grown 70%...why do you think that is? • 38% is paper, 12% yard waste, 11% food waste, 10% platics • E-Waste Growing FAST
MSW Continued… Garbologists findings • 50 year old newspapers still readable • Pork Chops decades old WHY DO THEY NOT DECOMPOSE????.....what do things need to decompose
MSW Continued… Enough disposable diapers each year linked together would go to moon and back 7 times Enough office paper to build a wall 11 feet high between NYC and SF
What are the options for dealing with waste? • Waste management (high waste approach) Waste is part of economic growth, lets manage negatives • Burying, burning, shipping • Waste prevention (low waste approach) Before product is produced look to minimize life cycle • Reduce, reuse, recycle
Six Ideas For Less Waste • Consume less: Do we Really NEED this? • Redesign products to use less resources: How can we make this product using less resources throughout their life cycle • Redesign to use and make less pollution: Toxic substances etc.
Six Ideas For Less Waste 4) Develop products that are easier to repair, reuse, remanufacture, compost or recycle 5) Design products to last longer 6) Eliminate or reduce packaging (nude packaging)
Burning and Burying What are advantages and disadvantages of burning solid waste? What are the advantages and disadvantages of burying solid waste?
Burning Waste • Japan and Switzerland over 50%, U.S. about 16% • More than 280 project canceled in U.S. due to high costs, concern among citizens, air pollution etc.
Burying Wastes • Open dumps • Sanitary landfills • Leachate collection • Monitoring wells • Emit greenhouse gases (CO2 and methane)
Sanitary Landfill Fig. 24-14 p. 547
And what about all of the older landfills around U.S. and the rest of the world???
NIMBY • Not In My Back Yardcommon with landfills and incinerators
Section 2: Minimizing Waste How can we reduce, reuse, recycle our waste?
What is REUSE? Cleaning and using the material over and over again increasing the lifespan of the product
Reuse: Benefits • Extends resource supplies • Saves energy and money • Reduces pollution • Create jobs • Reusable products
Reuse: Costs • Waste (especially e-waste) can contain harmful substances…especially heavy metals Many eke out living scavenging for waste in large open dumps
Some Success • 95% of Finland’s soft drink, beer, wine bottles reused • Germany about 3/4th are refilled
Other examples of Reuse… Shopping bags and tool libraries
Recycling What is recycling? What is composting? How should we recycle solid waste? How much waste paper is being recycled? How feasible is recycling plastics? Why isn’t more reused and recycled?
What is recycling? Reprocessing solid waste into new useful products 5 Categories in US Household Recycling • Paper Products • Glass • Aluminum • Steel • Some plastics
Characteristics of Recyclable Materials • Easily isolated from other waste • Available in large quantities • Valuable
Recycling Rates • Switzerland, Japan 50% • U.S. 30% up from 6.4% in 1960 • 60-80% is achievable
Wastepaper Recycling • Easy to recycle • Removing ink, glue coating and reconverting into pulp • 42% of world tree harvest is for paper • Currently U.S. recycles 49% of waste paper • Making paper has big enviro impact
How plastics are made • Recycling plastic is difficult chemically and economically • 10% in U.S. recycled • Different resins • Low cost of oil • Biodegradable plastics (bioplatics) offer hope
Economics of Recycling • Paper, aluminum, steel are easy to recycle and make easy economic sense • CRITICS: 1) plenty of landfill space, 2) Glass and plastic expensive to recycle • Employs 1.1 million people
Why we don’t recycle more • Enviro Costs not included (externalities) • Too few government subsidies • Tipping fees at landfills cheap • Price fluctuations for goods • Often don’t PAUT • Life cycle costs often not factored in
Did You Know?States with “bottle bills” (consumers receive a refund per returned bottle or can) have reduced their beverage container litter by 69–84% and total litter by 30–64%.