Chapter 11 Getting on with business
Sacco and Vanzetti • 1921- Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti convicted of the murder of two workers of shoe factory • Both immigrants from Italy and were declared anarchists • Jury foreman claimed the two should hang before the trial even began • Judge called the two “dagos” and worse throughout the trial. • No new trial was allowed and the two were hanged in 1927.
The Red Scare • After Sacco-Vanzetti, anti-communism became commonplace. Fear of communism was created by politicians, business leaders, and the press. • An untimely series of labor strikes raised fears, as riots and propaganda turned the public’s opinion against the strikers until the strikes were violently put down. • The fight against communism was led by U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer.
It is perfectly legal and ethical for the U.S. government to dissolve or outlaw any and all groups that they deem to be a threat.
The Results Only 70,000 civilians identified as Communists in the U.S at the time. Raids on workplaces root out immigrants connected to any radical political group and have them imprisoned or deported. Over 600 were deported before raids ended.
Moving on up • African-Americans head North for better wages, jobs, and living opportunities. • Violence was awaiting them however. • Riots and repeated attacks on both whites and African-Americans led to 4 dead and dozens of injured. • African-American Movements emerge from the violence with Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association • Garvey promoted the return of all Africans back to Africa but his movement failed after ships he purchased for their return turned out to be scows that leaked badly.
Progressivism Endures • Prohibition began in 1906 with the individual states banning the sale of alcohol and in 1919 the Volstead Act was ratified ending the sale of all alcoholic beverages. (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/478408/prohibition) • Women’s suffrage also began in 1920 after the law was passed in 1919, however, full equality took much longer to gain.