Lesson 1: Jamestown & the Virginia Colony. Jamestown & the Virginia Colony. Key Terms. Joint-stock company Virginia Company John Smith John Rolfe Cash crop Tobacco. Powhatan House of Burgesses Bacon’s Rebellion Indentured servant Slavery. What we want to know.
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Key Terms • Joint-stock company • Virginia Company • John Smith • John Rolfe • Cash crop • Tobacco • Powhatan • House of Burgesses • Bacon’s Rebellion • Indentured servant • Slavery
What we want to know • Why was Jamestown founded? • How did geography impact the development of Virginia? • What was the relationship between the colonists and the Native Americans? • What allowed Jamestown to prosper? • How was self-government developing in Jamestown?
Motivation for founding Jamestown • Money • Promise of gold for King James & English government • Land for small farmers pushed off their land • Land & wealth for younger sons who couldn’t inherit • More than a few of the early explorers were younger sons on a quest for wealth and fame
Early Efforts at Colonization & theLost Colony of Roanoke • First effort: Newfoundland • Roanoke – founded in 1585 by Sir Walter Raleigh off coast of Virginia • Croatoan
Founding of Jamestown • April 1607 Jamestown founded by a group of investors who formed The Virginia Company, a joint-stock company • The goal was to get rich quick. No one was thinking of long-term settlement • Jamestown became the 1st permanent English settlement in the Americas
Founding of Jamestown: The Colonists • The Colonists • Most were single men • Few had any practical skills like a knowledge of farming, carpentry, etc. • They planned to find gold and return to England • John Smith • Took over the colony in 1608 • Pocahontas –Powhatan people help colonists at first • “He who shall not work shall not eat.”
Founding of Jamestown • Conditions were terrible • Mosquitoes spread diseases like malaria • Colonists died of disease, malnutrition, & starvation • Many spent time looking for gold rather than storing food & building shelter
Founding of Jamestwon • The “Starving Time,” Winter 1609-160 • Only 60 of the 400 colonists survived (attempted cannibalism) • Colonist raided Native Americans to get food & this increases tensions between the two groups • 1610 Remaining colonists try to leave, but are ordered by back by the new governor, Lord De La Warr • 1625 Virginia Company was bankrupt & King James made Jamestown part of the royal colony of Virginia • In 1625 only 1200 out of 8,000 who had come to Virginia since 1607 were still alive
The English & the Native Americans • Relations remained tense & two major wars were fought • European diseases were the worst enemy of the Native Americans • By 1669, only 10% of the original Native American people who lived in Virginia remained
Evolution of Democracy in Virginia • 1619 The Virginia Company started the House of Burgesses • Governor appointed men to the H of B, which was the first representative legislature in the colonies • Members had to be male, over 21, and own a certain amount of property
Jamestown & Tobacco • Tobacco was introduced to Europe in the 1580s & a smoking frenzy began • 1612 John Rolfe introduced a hybrid tobacco with a smoother taste • By 1700, Virginia exported 40 million pounds of tobacco per year
Impact of Tobacco • Increased the need for land which caused colonists to move west • Increased the need for labor
How to get workers to Jamestown? • ___________system – a person who paid for another persons’ ticket to the new world got 50 acres of land • ___________ servants -- a person who could not afford the journey to America agreed to work for 4 to 7 years
Who were the indentured servants? • 3/4s of Chesapeake Bay colonists were ___________ servants • Young, unskilled males • A few were women & children • ___________ provided food, clothing, and housing • They were treated like ___________ • 2 out of 5 died before they finished their ___________ • Most went to live on the frontier or returned to England
Bacon’s Rebellion • Ex-indentured servants live on cheap ___________ land • They had lots of conflicts with the ___________ Americans • They paid high ___________ and wanted the governor of Virginia to send the ___________ to protect them • Gov. William Berkley (fur trade) refused to send help when fighting between colonists on the frontier & Native Americans in 1676
Bacon’s Rebellion • Nathaniel ___________ led the former indentured servants on a march to ___________, capital of the Virginia colony • Bacon and the rebels got control of Jamestown • The governor ran away • But Bacon died & the rebellion ended
Why is Bacon’s Rebellion important? • Using slaves seemed better than indentured servants • Showed power of "common man“ (an important theme in American history)
Lesson 2 Vocabulary & Key Terms • Purify • Puritans • Separatists • Plymouth Colony • Pilgrims • Mayflower Compact • Massachusetts Bay Colony • Port • Electorate • General Court • Dissenter • Roger Williams • Rhode Island • Anne Hutchinson • Treaty • Metacom • King Philip’s War
What We Want to Know • Why did the Puritans settle New England? • What type of colony was New England? • What was the relationship between the Puritans and the Native Americans? • What kind of government did the New England colonies have? • Why was the colony of Rhode Island founded? • What ended Native American power in New England? • What caused the Salem Witch Trials?
Settlement of the New England Colonies • The Puritans • A religious group in England • Wanted to “___________” the Church of England of ___________ rituals • Believed in hard work and community • Some Puritans said purifying the church was impossible, so they would have to separate from the Church of England • These people were called Separatists
Plymouth Colony & the Mayflower Compact • ___________ called the ___________ came to America on the Mayflower. • ___________ ___________– document signed by Pilgrim men. • 1st document of ___________ -government in America • Pilgrim men would make laws for all colonists
Massachusetts Bay Colony • Founded in 1630 • Founded by ___________ as a joint-stock company • ___________ wanted religious freedom
Society in the New England Colonies • Unlike Jamestown, Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay were settle by ___________ • Religion was very important.
Massachusetts Bay Colony • Government – • The Puritans had _____ ______ to make laws and decisions about government • Men who owned ___________ in the Massachusetts Bay Company could ___________ • Men who belonged to the ___________ church could vote • A large electorate – compared to England • The town meetings were an early form of democracy in America
Religious Dissenters in Massachusetts Bay • In Massachusetts the ___________ controlled the government • Religious difference were not tolerated • Roger ___________ disagreed with Puritan Church • Williams said • The Puritans should pay ___________ American for their land • The government shouldn’t punish people for disagreeing with the Puritan church • The Puritans forced Williams to leave MBC and he founded the colony of ___________ Island.
Religious Dissenters Anne Hutchinson • Said Christians didn’t need ___________ or the church to interpret the Bible • Hutchinson and her family were ___________ MBC • (Later Hutchinson & her family were killed by Native Americans.)
Puritans and Native Americans • Native Americans & Puritans made ___________ about using the land • Native Americans believed ___________ were for a ___________ time • Puritans believed the treaties were ________ • In 1637 there was a ________ between Native Americans and Puritans over ________ • Puritans ___________
Puritans and Native Americans • Many Native Americans were ______ and had to _______ for the Puritans and obey ___________ laws • 1675 Metacom (King ________), a Native American leader, started a war against the Puritans • The war was called King Philip’s • The Puritans won and the Native Americans did not ___________ the Puritans again.
The Salem Witch(Bruja) Trials, 1692 • Puritan society was very _________ – no cursing, no ___________, long church services, lots of rules to follow • Puritans also had to worry about _________ attacks • Puritan ________ had very little power in their own lives
Salem Witch Trials • 1692 young girls began accusing women in Salem of ___________ • Most people in the 1600s believed in _______ • The most important people in town were listening to the ___________ • 19 people were ________ for being witches • Finally, the girls accused the wife of the ___________
Lesson 3: The Middle Colonies:New York & PennsylvaniaNew Jersey & Delaware
The Middle Colonies Key Terms & Vocabulary • Dutch • Netherlands • Diverse (diversity) • Fur • Trade • Proprietary • Quaker • Minister • William Penn • Tolerance
The Middle Colonies: What we want to know • Why did the Dutch settle the New Netherlands (New York)? • Why did the Quakers settle Pennsylvania • What kind of societies developed in New York and Pennsylvania?
The Middle Colonies: New York • The New ___________ (New York) were colonized by the ___________ • The ___________ wanted to trade with the Native Americans for _____. • The Dutch let many different types of people settle in New Netherlands, so the New Netherlands had a very ________ population. • Germans, French, Scandinavia, free Africans
The Middle Colonies: New York • In the 1660s, the Dutch colony of the New Netherlands geographically split the _______ colony from the _____ ______ • England took the New Netherlands from the Dutch. • The English renamed the colony New ______ • The colony became a proprietary colony.
The Middle Colonies: Pennsylvannia • ___________ were religious dissenters. • They believed a church didn’t need a minister. • They did not believe in war. • William Penn was a _________ Quaker. He wanted to start a colony for Quakers.
The Middle Colonies: Pennsylvannia • Penn’s colony was called ___________. • Penn had strong beliefs about his colony • No slavery • Religious tolerance • _______ relations with the Native Americans • Penn let people from France, the Netherlands, Germany, and other countries live in Pennsylvania. • Pennsylvania was a ___________ colony.
The Thirteen Colonies • New Hampshire 1623 • Maryland 1634 – founded for Catholics • Connecticut – 1634 • Delaware 1638 • North Carolina 1653 • South Carolina 1663 • New Jersey 1664
Home Sweet Home:Georgia • King George III of England gave James Oglethorpe a charter to establish the colony of ___________ • In England in 1700s, people who could not ___________ were sent to jail. • ___________ believed it was better to give people a chance to work and ___________ • Oglethorpe wanted these people to live in Georgia
Georgia • 1736 Oglethorpe established his colony on Saint Simon’s Island. • Few debtors actually came • No rum and no slaves • Georgians saw South Carolinians getting rich from rice plantations