The Medieval Period (a.k.a. The Middle Ages) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Medieval Period (a.k.a. The Middle Ages)

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  1. The Medieval Period(a.k.a. The Middle Ages) 400 – 1400

  2. Life in the Middle Ages

  3. Living Conditions • Very wealthy lived in castles; poor peasants lived in huts; better-off peasants had more rooms and some even lived in stone houses with many floors • Wealthy owned vast amounts of land; poor worked on the land or in villages and gave 10% of their goods to the church • Church was very powerful • Most people were illiterate • Some education given to the wealthy via the church – and mostly for boys • Great famine and disease – even the wealthy were not immune to the great plagues

  4. Social Structure • The King was the highest ranked citizen; given “Divine Right” – thought to be chosen by God (therefore, rebellion was a sin, although people still rebelled!) Other nobles: dukes, lords, earls... • Church clergy were very powerful, feared and respected • Knights were military defenders of the castle and Kingdom • Peasants worked the land and in villages; some were “free men”; others were bound to the village lord and owed labour and feudal dues

  5. Medieval Music

  6. Medieval Music SACREDMUSIC • Religious music • Chant/plainsong is earliest form: • Monophonic • Sung in Latin • Text from the Bible • Sung by Monks • No fixed meter • Unaccompanied (a capella) • Later: parallel organum • Sung a 4th or 5th apart

  7. Medieval Music SECULAR MUSIC • For warfare and battles, or for entertainment • Bas and Haut – indoor and outdoor music • Bas: entertainment; lutes, singing (in common language), shakers, recorders, wooden flutes • Haut: warfare; timpani, trumpets, shawm, sackbut

  8. Important Musical People • Pope Gregory – compiled a large number of chants which were later known as “Gregorian Chant”. (Plainchant, plainsong and Gregorian Chant are all the same thing.) • Guido D’arezzo– the first to write down music using “neumes” (square notes on a four-line staff) • Minstrels – wandering musician/performers – travelled from town to town performing songs, doing tricks, telling stories

  9. Medieval Composers • Hildegaard von Bingen– only sacred music • John Dunstable– transition composer to Renaissance; sacred and secular • Francesco Landini– sacred and secular • Leonin – early composer of organum • Guillaume de Machaut– sacred and secular • Johannes Ockeghem– sacred and secular • Perotin – developed organum with more voices • Phillippe de Vitry – developed rhythmic variety

  10. Medieval Instruments • String Instruments • Harp • Lute- rounded back • Vielle • Rebec • Psaltery • Dulcimer • Cittern – guitar-like • Viol – violin-like • Wind Instruments • Flute • Trumpet • Bagpipes • Shawm • Sackbut • Hautbois • Recorder • Crumhorn • Serpent • Drums/Percussion • Drums/tambours • Cymbals – usually small • Triangle • Tabor – small drum • Timpani • Bells

  11. Interesting Stuff • This was the time of (mythical?) King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, and chivalry • Pastimes included chess, dice, cockfighting and bear-baiting • Capital and lowercase letters developed among scholars • Gunpowder and moveable print were developed in Asia during the Middle Ages, came later to North America • Famine was common • The Black Plague killed millions during this time; but made food more plentiful to those who survived, due to the decreased population • Barbers doubled as surgeons; would “bleed” patients and use leeches to rid them of disease