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Computer Assisted Learning (CAL): Implementation & Evaluation. Outline. What is CAL Paper presentation Implementation & Evaluation of CAL (software) Implementation & Evaluation of CAL. What is CAL ?. Activity 1 CAL Descriptions. Visit
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Outline What is CAL Paper presentation Implementation & Evaluation of CAL (software) Implementation & Evaluation of CAL
Activity 1CAL Descriptions • Visit • http://www.eng.monash.edu.au/usicee/activity/calprogr.htm#2ComputersandInstruction • http://www.le.ac.uk/cc/ltg/castle/ • www.blackwell-science.com/products/journals/jcal.htm • http://www-writing.berkeley.edu/chorus/call/ • Or search the net for other examples • Write down – ‘CAL is ……….’
CAI, CBI, CAL, CML, CBL … Computer applications in education • CAI/CBI = a view of the computer as delivering information to student through step-by-step instruction (e.g. drill-and-practice or tutorial programs) • CAL/CBL/CML = encompasses learning situations where the computer is used as an educational tool • Educational uses of the computer/IT/technology/ICT
The Role of Computer/IT information & knowledgea window to the worlda mind or cognitive tool communication toola device to stimulate change … etc
Computer Assisted Learning • Computer - dynamic development of computer technology/IT, the role of computer or IT in the learning process is rapidly growing and changing • Assisted - to help, give support, further advance • Learning - different kinds of learning and variety of learning theories
Many CAL developments have been ‘technology driven’, and many have failed …… (Draper, 1998)
Constructivist Learning • Groupwork or activity-based learning can lead towards constructivist learning? • Lecture only involves knowledge/information transmission?
Constructivism • A view point about learning • Not a single theory of learning but an extended family of theories emphasizing the individual, social, cognitive, contextual, or emergent nature of learning • Learners arrive at meaning by actively selecting, and cumulatively constructing, their own knowledge, rather than by receiving and storing knowledge
Contructivism places the learner’s perspectives as central.It is within that framework that students’ approaches to learning are themselves constructed and deployed
Activity 2Visit the “Learner-Centred Principles” website http://www.apa.org/ed/lcp.htmlDiscuss their implications for CAL
Designing & Implementing CAL Program • Planning - educational need, objectives, generate ideas about presentation of the content, project management • Design - control of learning process, navigation, orientation, interactivity, screen layout, questions, feedback, multimedia • E.g.: http://www.civeng.uct.ac.za/caleng/howto.htm
Types of Traditional CAL Packages • Tutorial • Games • Drill-and-Practice • Simulation • Problem Solving
Characteristics Considered in Evaluating Educational Software - A Checklist Approach • General instructional quality • Content • Appropriateness • Questioning techniques • Approach/motivation • Creativity • Learner control …….etc
Software Evaluation - A Situated Approach (Squires & McDougall, 1994; 1996) Designer (passive actor) Student (live actor) Teacher (live actor)
Issues in Implementing CAL • Developing a shared understanding of teaching and learning - e.g. “What is good teaching practice?” • The integration of technology into teaching and learning - e.g. “What software and hardware are required?” • Reengineering teaching and learning - e.g. “Why am I teaching this way?”
Visit Issues in implementing learning technologyhttp://www.sofweb.vic.edu.au/lt/issues.htm Activity 3 Discuss the issues according to your experiences
CAL Evaluation (Gunn, 1996) • Impact on learning than usability factors • the need to properly integrate CAL into existing courses • the means of evaluating influential aspects of the learning contexts in which CAL is used • authentic circumstances
Applying CAL to improve learning (Draper, 1998) • Identify a real pedagogic problem • how the invention is a solution to the pedagogic problem • a neat bit of CAL design • skilled administration of the teaching and learning using the technology • evaluation and demonstration of the resulting learning gains
An Evaluation of Computer Assisted Learning in Victorian Schoolshttp://www.sofweb.vic.edu.au/lt/cal.htm
About the Evaluation • 36 schools • 3 CAL systems - SuccessMaker, EduQuest, Acorn • To assess the initial reactions of teachers and students to the systems and to provide data for the Directorate of School Education which could form the basis of advice to schools • Achievement testing, questionnaire responses, interviews
CAL in Victorian Schools: Evaluation Highlight
Teachers indicated that the major problems in implementing their CAL systems are: 1. hardware and software problems2. the lack of professional development3. the lack of supporting information on ways to integrate CAL with other learning activities
Teachers rated the most important features in a CAL system as:1. modules – remedial & enrichment activities2. immediate performance feedback to teachers 3. availability of a management system for keeping track of student progress4. learning modules linked to key learning areas5. diagnostic procedures for identifying weaknesses in learning
The features that students found most important in CAL activities were: 1. being allowed to work at their own pace 2. being told how well they were doing 3. having work corrected quickly
TLT GroupTeaching & Learning & Technology To improve teaching and learning with technology http://www.tltgroup.org/
References • Squires, D. & McDougall, A. (1996) Software Evaluation: A Situated Approach, Journal of CAL, 12, 146-161. • Squires, D. & McDougall, A. (1994) Choosing and Using Educational Software, London: The Falmer Press. • Draper, S.W. (1998) Niche-based success in CAL, Computers and Education, 30(1/2), 5-8. • Gunn, C. (1996) CAL evaluation: what questions are being answered?, Computers and Education, 27(3/4), 9-14.