Formulation of a superior quality tuna patty with… MILLET FSHN 381 Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition University of Hawaii at Manoa Aaron Brown Isabel Mearig Margaret Wilson
Our purpose • Our purpose was to develop a Tuna patty… • ¼ lb in wt. • 51% tuna • Utilizes millet as a filler • Does not contain dairy, wheat or eggs, and has acceptable sensory characteristics. • Limited supplies and trials.
About Millets • Not a taxonomic group but a functional one • A group of small-seeded species of cereal crops or • grains • Widely grown around the world for food and • fodder • Capable of growth in difficult environments • Protein content very similar to wheat • Doesn’t contain gluten
Pearl Millet (Pennisetumglaucum) Most common type of Millet It accounts for approximately 50% of the total world production of millets Grown in regions characterized by drought, low soil fertility, and high temperature Grows where wheat and maize cannot Used in leavened or unleavened breads, porridges, boiled or steamed foods, and (alcoholic) beverages May have eaten it as couscous or crushed millet
Composition • Comparable to wheat in baked or cooked products • Good oil absorbing capacity • Good gelling properties • Slightly sweet, nutlike flavor
Millet as aWhole grain Millet is a whole grain Whole grain foods contain all of the naturally occurring nutrients of the entire grain seed. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends at least 3 servings of whole-grain foods each day
Whole grains have many health benefits Rich in dietary fiber, (up to 4X more than refined grains) Higher than processed grains in … Antioxidants Protein Minerals and vitamins May help reduce the risk of some forms of cancer, digestive system diseases, gum disease, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and obesity.
Our Experiments • Using different binders in our patty: chickpea flour, potato starch, and corn starch • Using Guar gum as an additional binder • Altering the texture of the tuna in the patty • Altering the texture of the millet in the patty using different cooking techniques • Altering the blend of spices in the patty.
Binders • Binders hold the patty’s ingredients together. • Chickpea Flour: used in pancakes, other baked goods and savory meatballs, more flavorful substitute for wheat flour. • Guar Gum: from guar beans, 8x’s the binding power of corn starch, binder in meat products, improves texture in baked products, prevents “weeping” in refrigerated dairy products.
Final Recipe: ¼ lb patty • 1/3 cup Canned Light Tuna Packed in Water (Drained) • ¼ cup cooked Pearl Millet (3 parts water:1 part Millet) • 1 tbsp + 1 tsp Chickpea Flour • ½ tsp Guar Gum • 1/8 tsp Salt • 1/8 tsp Pepper • 1/8 tsp Garlic Powder • 1/8 tsp Onion Powder • ¼ tsp Parsley • Cook millet over medium heat just until water is absorbed. • Mix Chickpea Flour, Guar gum and spices. Add tuna and cooked millet. • Mix with hands just until ingredients are combined and form patty. • Cook on stovetop in oil over medium heat until golden brown.
Nutrition Facts *Note that oil used in cooking has not been included in nutrient analysis
Cost Per Patty Millet (2.1 oz) $ .89 / lb. $ .06 / oz. Tuna (1.6 oz) $ 7.00 / lb $ .44 / oz. Chickpea Flour (.4 oz) $ 1.79/ lb. $ .11 / oz. Guar Gum (.04 oz) $ 10.00/ lb. $ .63/ oz. TOTAL COST PER PATTY (.4 oz)= $ .90 Does not include the cost of seasoning.