History of Measures against IUU Large-Scale Tuna Longline Fishery 1980s Sightings of unknown flagged large-scale tuna longline vessels in the Mediterranean 1992 ICCAT Bluefin Tuna Statistical Document Program 1994 ICCAT Bluefin Tuna Action Plan 1996 ICCAT trade sanction on bluefin tuna starts 1998 ICCAT IUU Action Plan for trade sanction 1998- Japan-Taiwan bilateral consultations 1999- Various countermeasures by RFMOs 2001 FAO IPOA on IUU Fishing
2. Problems - Flag hopping, change names - Almost all IUU tuna longline vessels are owned and operated by Taiwanese residents - Flag states are the victims of IUU vessel owners - Almost all catches are frozen tuna for sashimi use - Almost all IUU longline catches are landed on Japanese market • Deterioration of tuna stocks
A List of Flags Used by Taiwanese FOC Vessel Owners（Number of vessels included in the ICCAT IUU lists)
3. Countermeasures - Focused on persons who actually own and operate the IUU vessels - Japan-Taiwan Joint Action Programs to Eliminate IUU Large-Scale Tuna Longline Vessels (LSTLVs) - Implementation of the programs of vessel scrapping and vessel re-registration to Taiwan • Resolutions on non-purchase guidance of IUU caught tunas by ICCAT & IOTC • Establishment of OPRT • Data collection on the history of vessels including previous vessel and owner names • IUU vessel listing
Required importers to submit records of the vessels Required importers to report vessel name etc. ICCAT IUU List was revised Tunas Imported to Japan against the Non-Purchase Guidance Source: Report from Importers
Transition of number of IUU Large-Scale Tuna Longline Vessels (LSTLVs)
4. New Problems - Tuna laundering - Use of forged documents - Non-effectiveness of measures based on IUU list (negative list)
An Implication of Tuna LaunderingAmount of Japanese Bigeye Tuna Import from Taiwan and Number of Vessels Exported over 350MT of Bigeye a Year Source : Report from Importers
Examples of Notes of the IUU List 11 According to Seychelles, vessels flying the Seychelles flag are monitored by VMS and provide catch and effort data to the flag State. 12 St. Vincent and the Grenadines indicated in 2002 and 2003 that these vessels are properly regulated and report daily catch-effort data and their geographical position is monitored on a daily basis 13 In the view of Vanuatu, the listing of these vessels should not be used as a basis for trade embargo. 14 Belize informed ICCAT in 2003 that these vessels are now properly regulated under its High Seas Fishing Act, and that Belize has undertaken to delete these vessels upon receipt of appropriate legal evidence to trigger de-registration under Belize legislation.
5. New Countermeasures - ICCAT, IOTC and IATTC adopted a new measure based on positive list • Japan started a new measure based on the positive list in November 2003 on a global basis --- only tunas caught by the LSTLVs on the positive lists are allowed to enter the Japanese market.
6. Newly Emerging Problems • Rapid increase of the number of large-scale purse seine vessels • Shifting of longline fishing with vessels less than 24m
Number of Pure Seine Vessels of Major Fishing Members Registered to FFA Regional Register (Data Source : FFA Regional Register List)
Purse Seine Catches of Major Fishing Members in the western central Pacific (1,000MT)
Number of Longliners of Major Fishing Members Registered to FFA Regional Register (Data Source : FFA Regional Register List)
Conclusion • Measures focused on flag states including trade measure had a limited effectiveness. • Trade tracking and its resulting accumulation of information by market countries are an enormous task but it provides the most important fundamentals for creation of effective measures to combat IUU fishing. • Direct consultations with IUU vessel owners played an important role toward termination of the problem.
Conclusion - continues • Measures based on positive list are effective but there may still continue tuna laundering and use of forged documents. • FOC/IUU fishing is a part of overcapacity. • All FOC flag states are developing states. • Even after elimination of IUU fishing, as far as developing states accept limitlessly registrations of foreign fishing vessels, overcapacity problem continues.
Recommendations • IUU measures should be specific to each fishery and based on trade and other data for identification of real operators. • FAO should establish a global record of tuna fishing vessels, compiling the existing records of tuna fishing vessels of relevant RFMOs and RFMOs should cooperate with FAO in establishment of the record. • Developed states, parties and fishing entities should stop construction of new tuna fishing vessels except for those replacing the existing licensed vessels with equivalent fishing capacity whatever flag is used.
Recommendations - continues • FAO should request RFMOs to establish, as a matter of priority, a system to transfer fishing capacity from developed states, parties and fishing entities to developing states smoothly. • A nation, party or fishing entity whose residents caused rapid expansion of fishing capacity in recent years should cut at least that expanded portion of fishing capacity. • RFMOs should develop market oriented measures for purse seine caught tuna. Countries importing purse seine caught tuna must play a vital role.