(1) Organization for the Promotion of Responsible Tuna Fisheries Private initiatives to eliminate IUU tuna Fishing Activities
(2) Large scale tuna longline fishing vessel and fishing gear
(3) Motivation of IUU tuna longline fishing vessels = Japanese sashimi tuna market Nature of Japanese sashimi tuna market 1.Tuna is consumed as sashimi as well as an ingredient in sushi. sushi sashimi
(4) Motivation of IUU tuna longline fishing = Japanese sashimi tuna market 3.High price is guaranteed for the fish. 2.Demand is large and stable. • Price of frozen tuna (Japan)(average between 2001 and 2003) For sashimi Bluefin tuna : \800 – 3200/Kg Bigeye tuna : \400 – 1000/Kg Yellowfin tuna : \200 – 600/Kg As a canned food ingredient Yellowfin tuna : \80 – 110/Kg
(5) 4. International market Number of countries exported frozen/fresh tuna for sashimi market to Japan
(6) OPRT’s Objective To contribute to the development of tuna fisheries in accordance with international and social responsibility To promote sustainable use of tuna resource By reinforcing the conservation and management of tuna recourses Fostering healthy tuna markets Promoting international cooperation among fishermen
(7) OPRT’s Members Producer’s Organization Dec, 2000 2002 2003 2004 Japan, Chinese Taipei China Ecuador Korea, Philippines,Indonesia Number of vessels registered（As of March 2004：1,460 vessels） Japan 480 Chinese Taipei 596 Korea 174 Philippines 17 Indonesia14 China105 Ecuador5 Vanuatu, Seychelles 69
(8) Initiative by Japan Tuna Fishing Industry Motives behind the initiative In 1999, 132 (20% of the entire fleet) Japanese large scale tuna longline fishing vessels scrapped.- in response to UN FAO’s IPOA for the management of Fishing Capacity Effort to restore overfished tunas by the fleet reduction are nullified by IUU / FOC fishing Activities.
(9) Action Plan by Japan and Taiwan（Agreed in February 1999） 1. Scrapping of IUU tuna longline fishing vessels Length of the plan：3 years（between 2001 and 2003） Number of vessels： 26 vessels in the first year （Others: 3 vessels sank.） 8 vessels in the second year 5 vessels in the third year （Others: 1 vessel sank.） Total : 39 vessels（Others: 4 vessels sank.） 2. Re-registration to Taiwan : 48 vessels
(10) Concrete Actions by private initiatives Inter-industry negotiations with Taiwan 1 • Approach to importers, distributors 2 Approach to government and Diet members 3 Educational efforts, including publicity campaigns for the general public, TV interviews, lecture meetings, and distribution of leaflets 4 Monitoring of IUU tunas caught by IUU imported to Japan 5
(11) Support from an international NGO (Another private initiative) ICFA Aims: The international Coalition of Fisheries Association (ICFA) formed in 1988 to provide a unified voice and representation of the world’s commercial fish industries in international fora. Objective: to preserve and maintain the oceans as a major food source for People of the world. Members: fishing industry association s and organizations in Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chinese Taipei, Iceland, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Norway, New Zealand, Philippines, Russian Federation, Singapore, Thailand, United states of America, Vietnam.
(12) ICFA resolution • * Support OPRT’s initiative to conserve and manage tuna resources, particularly the scrapping of FOC tuna longline vessels, • * request all states and entities to take practical and effective actions to eliminate IUU/FOC fishing as agreed in the FAO’s IPOA on IUU fishing and recommended by the 1999 ICCAT resolution calling for further actions against illegal, unregulated, and unreported fishing activities by large scale longline vessels in the convention area and other areas, • * request all states to refrain from accepting former FOC fishing vessels in any manner because such action nullify the effort by OPRT, • * Call upon states to reject import of tuna species managed by global or regional fishing management organizations that can’t present proof that they were obtained under measures approved by those organizations; • * Supports the resolution* adopted by members of the OPRT held in Tokyo on August1, 2002 and requests the Government of Japan and the relevant regional tuna fishery management organizations to take actions consistent with this resolution at the earliest possible time; (* the resolution called for the implementation of Positive List Scheme ) At 2001 Annual Meeting At 2002 Annual Meeting
(13) Number of IUU large scale tuna longline fishing vessels (its rise and fall)
(14) Are private initiatives a possible way forward? Conclusion 1 • The long-term private initiative has been effective in the elimination of IUU large longline tuna fishing vessels that target the Japanese sashimi market. Conclusion 2 - Private initiative is not enough - • Requirements of the elimination of IUU fishing vessels • A．Collaboration of all the parties concerned (Governments, international organizations, and private sectors) • B．Development of a legal framework by governments and international organizations • ・Ban on international transactions of tuna caught by IUU fishing vessels • ・Embargo on IUU fishing vessels • ・Ban on transshipments of tuna from IUU fishing vessels to • carrying vessels and others. • C. Efforts at the international level
(15) Future of OPRT • Further promotion of responsible tuna fisheries • Control of fishing capacity - Longline tuna fishing vessels • Issue of the bycatch of non-target species • - Efforts toward the conservation of marine ecosystem（seabirds, sharks, sea turtles） • Encouragement of the introduction of responsible purse seine fisheries • - Concerns over the rapid increase of fishing pressure by large scale purse seine fishing vessels.