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Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) . Rob Horner, Steve Newton, & Anne Todd University of Oregon Bob Algozzine & Kate Algozzine University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Today’s Goals. All able to: Use practice effective “ meeting foundations”

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team initiated problem solving tips

Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS)

Rob Horner, Steve Newton, & Anne Todd

University of Oregon

Bob Algozzine & Kate Algozzine

University of North Carolina at Charlotte

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

today s goals
Today’s Goals
  • All able to:
    • Use practice effective “meeting foundations”
      • Build roles: facilitator, minute taker and data analyst
      • Complete Meeting Foundations Checklist
      • Electronic meeting minutes
    • Use the TIPS problem solving model during meetings
      • Data-based Decision making rules
        • Defining “problems” with precision
        • Building practical solutions to meet defined goal(s)
    • Implement the solutions developed during meetings
      • Building action plans to implement solutions.
      • Build action plan for evaluating fidelity and impact of implementation
  • Leave today ready to implement TIPS at your next meeting
      • Have meeting minutes to begin next meeting with
      • A plan for coaching support
      • Electronic files of TIPS documents

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

slide4

People aren’t tired from solving problems – they are tired from solving the same problem over and over.

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

tips study todd et al 2011

Journal of Applied School Psychology

TIPS Study: Todd et al., 2011

Baseline Coaching TIPS

Meeting Foundations Score

School A

Solid = SW PBIS meetings

Open = progress monitoring (DIBELS) meetings

School B

% DORA Foundations Score

School C

School D

tips study todd et al 20111

Journal of Applied School Psychology

TIPS Study: Todd et al., 2011

Thoroughness of

decision-making scores

Baseline Coaching TIPS

School A

Solid = SW PBIS meetings

Open = progress monitoring (DIBELS) meetings

% DORA Thoroughness Score

School C

School D

what do we need
What do we need?
  • A clear model with steps for problem solving
  • Access to the right information at the right time in the right format
  • A formal/ predictable process that a group of people can use to build and implement solutions.
slide8

Hold effective meetings that use data to problem solve and plan AND that result in positive student outcomes

Building Capacity and Sustainability

For Social Competence,

Academic Achievement, and Safety

OUTCOMES

Team-based, documentation, regular communication

cycles

SWIS

DIBELS

Aims Web

Easy CBM

SYSTEMS

INFORMATION

Meeting Foundations

Meeting Minute Format

Problem solving routine

PRACTICES

Supporting

Staff & Student Behavior and Decision Making

improving decision making via problem solving
Improving Decision-Making via Problem Solving

Action Planning & Evaluation

Problem

Solving

Problem

Solution

Information/ Data

tips model
TIPS Model
  • TIPS Training
    • One full day team training with the coach
    • ½ day coach training
    • Two coached meetings
  • Team Meeting
    • Use of electronic meeting minute system
    • Formal roles (facilitator, recorder, data analyst)
    • Specific expectations (before meeting, during meeting, after meeting)
    • Access and use of data
    • Projected meeting minutes
slide11

Identify

Problems

Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model

Develop

Hypothesis

Evaluate and

Revise

Action Plan

Collect

and Use

Data

Discuss and

Select

Solutions

Develop and

Implement

Action Plan

Problem SolvingMeeting Foundations

problem solving meeting foundations

Problem-Solving Meeting Foundations

Structure of meetings lays foundation for efficiency & effectiveness

meeting foundations elements
Meeting Foundations Elements
  • Purpose of the team
  • Define team agreements about meeting processes
  • Define roles & responsibilities
  • Use electronic meeting minutes

Newton, J.S., Todd, A. W., Horner, R.H., Algozzine, B., & Algozzine K., 2010

what makes a successful meeting
What makes a successful meeting?
  • Start & end on time
  • 75% of team members present & engaged in topic(s)
  • Agenda is used to guide meeting topics
  • System is used for monitoring progress of implemented solutions (review previous meeting minutes)
  • System is used for documenting decisions
  • Facilitator, Minute Taker & Data Analyst come prepared for meeting & complete during the meeting responsibilities
  • Next meeting is scheduled
  • All regular team members (absent or present) get access to the meeting minutes w/n 24 hours of the meeting
  • Decision makers are present when needed
  • Efforts are making a difference in the lives of children/students.
the flow of the meeting
The Flow of the Meeting
  • Attendance, roles for meeting
  • Next meeting scheduled
  • Review/status update of previous meeting minutes
  • Review agenda for meeting
  • Review data & use TIPS problem solving model to prompt the development of a precision problem statement and a comprehensive action plan
  • Determine Reports needed for next meeting
  • Determine the information that needs to be shared with whom
  • Quick team assessment of meeting
    • Fidelity of implementation checklist 3-4 times a year
  • Dissemination of meeting minutes

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

slide16

Defining Team Membership and Meeting Schedule

Newton, J.S., Todd, A. W., Horner, R.H., Algozzine, B., & Algozzine K., 2010

slide17

Respect:

    • active,
    • equitable,
    • attentive
  • Responsibility:
  • task completion
  • timeliness
  • positivity
  • 3. Reality:
  • doable
  • honesty

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

slide18

Inform facilitator of absence/tardy before meeting

Avoid side talk

Remind each other to stay focused

Start and end on time

Be an active participant

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

define roles for effective meetings
Define roles for effective meetings
  • Core roles
    • Facilitator
    • Minute taker
    • Data analyst
    • Active team member
    • Administrator
  • Backup for each role

Typically NOT the administrator

Can one person serve multiple roles?

Are there other roles needed?

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

facilitator skills
Facilitator Skills
  • Facilitator
    • Ask questions
      • 75% of what a facilitator says should be in question form
    • Implement group norms/agreements
    • Keep people on track (back on track)
    • Move through agenda in a timely fashion
      • Need access to a clock/watch

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

minute taker skills
Minute Taker Skills
  • Uses computer
    • Word processer
    • Save files
    • Edit files
  • Ability to listen to a discussion and paraphrase critical information in written form
  • Fluent with meeting minute form

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

data analyst skills
Data Analyst Skills
  • Likes data
  • Fluency in navigating data set to generate custom reports
  • Discriminates features/labels needed for creating custom reports
  • Create a story from data summary
    • For new problems
    • Status on old problems
  • 15-20 minutes prior meetings to generate data summaries and summary statement(s)

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

pbis school team members roles responsibilities
PBIS School Team Members Roles & Responsibilities
  • Meeting Facilitator:

Facilitates each team meeting, bringing an agreed upon agenda. At meeting’s end, checks for understanding, clarifies any tasks to be completed before next meeting, and notes next meeting date.

  • Minute Taker:

Brings a laptop(could use a template for minutes) to record only the decisions and actions. Distributes electronic copies of the minutes to team members.

  • Data Analyst:

Provides a summary analysis of the data reports for team members to use for building responses at the meeting: The BIG 5 Reports (Average Referrals per day per month, Problem Behavior, Location, Time, Student Referrals) and Motivation Custom Report. (Becomes fluent in report features for data analysis).

  • Administrator:

Provides approval for decisions regarding/impacting staffing, scheduling, budget

  • Back Ups for facilitator, minute taker, data analyst

Present to take responsibility in absence of primary team roles

  • Other roles as defined by team
      • Staff Sharing Coordinator(s)

Organizes the information (data summary and suggested responses to data) to share at monthly staff meeting. Schedules and rotates 2-3 team members to present to staff each month.

      • Action Plan and Calendar Monitor(s):

Tracks the PBIS Team Year Action Plan at each meeting and all PBIS Calendar dates (meetings,

trainings, re-teaching schedule, etc.)

before the meeting who does each
Before the Meeting…Who does each

Facilitator

  • Room reserved
  • “New” items solicited for agenda
  • Agenda produced
  • Review data & bring report to the team
  • Lead team through discussion of effects of in-process solutions on “old” problems
  • Meeting minutes distributed within 24 hours of meeting.
  • Computer reserved; access to SWIS online database assured
  • LCD projector reserved & set up to project data (or team has some other strategy for ensuring team members can review data at meeting)

Facilitator

Facilitator

Data Analyst

Facilitator

Minute Taker

Minute Taker

Newton, J.S., Todd, A. W., Horner, R.H., Algozzine, B., & Algozzine K., 2010

at close of and after meeting
At Close of and After Meeting…
  • Meeting Minutes and Problem-Solving Action Plan completed
  • Coordinate the staff meeting presentation
  • Copy of Meeting Minutes & Problem-Solving Action Plan distributed to each member within 24 hrs.
  • Update the PBIS Team Calendar and Action Planning Forms

Minute Taker

Staff Sharing Coord.

Minute Taker

Action Plan & Calendar Monitor

Newton, J.S., Todd, A. W., Horner, R.H., Algozzine, B., & Algozzine K., 2010

team roles activity 1 7 min
Team Roles: Activity #1: 7 min.

Determine primary and backup people for key roles

using meeting minutes
Using Meeting Minutes
  • Documentation of
    • Logistics of meeting
    • Agenda items for today’s meeting ( and next meeting)
    • Discussion items, decisions made, tasks and timelines assigned
    • Problem statements, solutions/decisions/tasks
  • Reviewing Meeting minutes
    • A snapshot of what happened at the previous meeting and what needs to be reviewed during the upcoming meeting
  • Visual tracking of focus topics during and after meetings
    • Prevents side conversations
    • Prevents repetition
    • Encourages completion of tasks

Newton, J.S., Todd, A. W., Horner, R.H., Algozzine, B., & Algozzine K., 2010

slide30

Langley Elementary PBIS Team Meeting Minutes and Problem-Solving Action Plan Form

Today’s Meeting: Date, time, location: Facilitator: Minute Taker: Data Analyst:

Next Meeting: Date, time, location: Facilitator: Minute Taker: Data Analyst:

Team Members (bold are present today)

Administrative/General Information and Issues

Problem-Solving Action Plan

Evaluation of Team Meeting (Mark your ratings with an “X”)

Newton, J.S., Todd, A. W., Horner, R.H., Algozzine, B., & Algozzine K., 2010

what needs to be documented
What needs to be documented?
  • Meeting demographics
    • Date, time, who is present, who is absent
    • Agenda
    • Next meeting date/time/location/roles
  • Administrative/ general Information/Planning items
    • Topic of discussion, decisions made, who will do what, by when
  • Problem-Solving items
    • Problem statement, data used for problem solving, determined solutions, who will do what by when, goal, how/how often will progress toward goal be measured, how/how often will fidelity of implementation be measured
organizing for an effective problem solving conversation
Organizing for an effective problem solving conversation

A key to collective problem solving is to provide a visual context that allows everyone to follow and contribute

Problem

Use Data

Out of Time

Solution

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

slide33

Langley Elementary PBIS Team Meeting Minutes and Problem-Solving Action Plan Form

Today’s Meeting: Date, time, location: Facilitator: Minute Taker: Data Analyst:

  • Where in the Form would you place:
  • Planning for next PTA meeting?
  • Too many students in the “intensive support” for literacy
  • Schedule for hallway monitoring for next month
  • There have been five fights on playground in last month.
  • Next meeting report on lunch-room status.

Next Meeting: Date, time, location: Facilitator: Minute Taker: Data Analyst:

Team Members (bold are present today)

Administrative/General Information and Issues

Problem-Solving Action Plan

Evaluation of Team Meeting (Mark your ratings with an “X”)

slide34

Team Meeting Minutes and Problem-Solving Action Plan Form

Today’s Meeting: Date, time, location: Facilitator: Minute Taker: Data Analyst:

  • Where in the Form would you place:
  • Planning for CICO program implementation
  • Three students are not meeting daily CICO goal
  • Parents are not signing CICO home report
  • ORF scores are too low for third graders
  • Next meeting report on CICO fidelity of implementation.

Next Meeting: Date, time, location: Facilitator: Minute Taker: Data Analyst:

Team Members (bold are present today)

Administrative/General Information and Issues

Problem-Solving Action Plan

Evaluation of Team Meeting (Mark your ratings with an “X”)

meeting minute simulations
Meeting Minute Simulations

For each Simulation

  • Listen to the discussion
  • Determine
    • Type of item: general administrative or problem solving
    • Where the information fits on the meeting minute form
    • What information is relevant to record
  • Make notes on meeting minute form

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

what is relevant to write down
What is relevant to write down?
  • Minors-what would we like to do about communicating the minors with families? There is inconsistency among staff, not all teachers use the minors as a teaching tool in the same way. Is this a problem? What should be do?

Discussion:

  • Perhaps we create a little blurb that goes out to families that teachers will use when sending them home. Sending them home creates a problematic situation, can be an issue with communication with families. Perhaps we need to just say to staff a general reminder about what is going on with the minors for families of multiple students or friends, etc. We will wait until next year to re-train staff and discuss how to use WHOAS and how to communicate them with parents.

Issue: families are not signing and returning minor incident reports

Possible hypotheses/solutions: multiple students in household bringing minor incident reports home? parent gets upset with student & students not giving form to parents to sign?

Decision: re-examine the process being used to document and communicate about minor incidents

meeting minute simulation
Meeting Minute Simulation

Fac: ‘we have a PTO meeting in 2 weeks and we need to get organized. last time not very many parents came and said that childcare was necessary’

TM 1: ‘ Tina’s daughter is a babysitter, oh and did you hear what happened to her last weekend?’

TM2: ‘ oh it was awful, and I heard…..’

Fac: ‘back to PTO planning, how can we increase attendance?’

  • What needs to be documented?
slide41

Any tasks assigned get copied to the meeting minutes of the next meeting as a follow up item

Meeting Agenda Item: Meeting Foundations Tasks: What, by whom, by when

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

activity 2 20 min
Activity # 2 (20 min)
  • Complete Meeting Foundations Checklist
    • Can do this electronically
    • Define and record Team Agreements
    • Complete Team Member Information page
  • Minute Taker
    • set up Meeting Minute Form with team demographics
      • Roles, logistics, regular team members
      • General Administrative Item labeled: Meeting Foundations
        • Tasks assigned are decisions
          • Action Planning will take place during afternoon meeting timelines, & people responsible to the meeting minute form

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

break time
Break Time
  • Prepare for Problem Solving

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

slide46

Identify

Problems

Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model

Develop

Hypothesis

Evaluate and

Revise

Action Plan

Collect

and Use

Data

Discuss and

Select

Solutions

Develop and

Implement

Action Plan

Problem SolvingMeeting Foundations

big ideas for effective problem solving
Big Ideas for Effective Problem Solving
  • Teams use a predictable routine
    • Practicing effective meeting foundations
    • Interacting with their data
    • Scheduled reporting cycle(s)
  • Problem Solving model is generalize-able across
    • Contexts/teams
      • School wide, grade level/groups, individual students
    • Content areas
      • Academic and social behavior
      • Fidelity of implementation
    • Data sets
  • Problems are defined with precision before ‘solving’ them
    • Active use of data
  • Fidelity of implementation and student outcomes are measured regularly to determine when goals are met
effective team decision making
Effective Team Decision-making
  • Team Foundations (roles, schedule, format)
  • Define Problems with precision
  • Define the Goal before the solution
  • Build functional solutions
  • Transform solutions into action plans
  • Measure fidelity and impact (repeatedly)
  • Adapt solutions over time to fit new data
six things to avoid
Six things to avoid
  • Define a solution before defining the problem
  • Build solutions from broadly defined, or fuzzy problem statements
  • Failure to use data to confirm/define problem
  • Agree on a solution without building a plan for how to implement or evaluate the solution
  • Agree on a solution but never assess if the solution was implemented
  • Serial problem solving without decisions
slide50

Identify

Problems

Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model

Develop

Hypothesis

Evaluate and

Revise

Action Plan

SWIS

AimsWeb

Collect

and Use

Data

OAKS

DIBELS

easyCBM

PBIS Assessment

Discuss and

Select

Solutions

Develop and

Implement

Action Plan

Problem SolvingMeeting Foundations

Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon unpublished training manual.

transforming data into information
Transforming Data into Information
  • Develop a primary summary statement
    • Examine the patterns (tell the story)
      • Level, Trend
      • Peaks
      • Match data to current perceptions
    • Compare your data
      • With national median
      • With last year
      • With what your staff/students/ families want
transforming data into information1
Transforming Data into Information

2. Universal Screening Tool

  • Use multiple data sources
  • Use a continuum of supports model
  • For social behavior: Proportion of students with
    • 0-1 Office Discipline Referrals (ODRs), Tier I supports are working
    • 2-5 ODRs, good candiates for Tier II level of support(s)
    • 6+ ODRs, need a Tier III support plan

3. Precision Problem Solving

  • Progress Monitoring Tool
    • Defined precision problem statement, action plans with solution tasks, people, & timelines assigned and an evaluation plan with goal, fidelity and outcome measures/reporting cycle
    • Compare data across time
    • Prevent previous problem patterns

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

slide55

Elementary School with 150 Students

Our average Major ODRs per school day per month are higher than national median for a school of our enrollment size. We have peaks in frequency of problems in Nov, Feb & April, with an increasing trend from August to May.

slide57

Jennifer Frank, Kent McIntosh, Seth May

Cumulative Mean ODRs Per Month

for 325+ Elementary Schools 08-09

Cumulative Mean ODRs

start with primary problem statements

Start with Primary Problem Statements

Look at the Big Picture, then use data to refine the Big Picture, moving to development of Precise Problem Statement(s)

Move to PreciseProblem Statements

slide60

Questions to Ask of the Data

What is?

What is typical?

What is possible?

What is needed?

Compare with National Median

150 / 100 = 1.50 1.50 X .21 = .32

Elementary School with 150 Students

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

slide61

Elementary School 465 students (465/ 100 = 4.6 X .21= .97

Our rate of problem behavior has been above the national median for schools our size every month this year. There has been a decreasing trend since December

Primary Goal: Our rate of problem behavior is at or below the national median as measured by SWIS, monthly for the ‘school year’

slide65

Median Line based on 2010-11 Data

Describe the narrative for this High school

Year One Year Two

what are the data you are most likely to need to move from a primary to a precise statement
What are the data you are most likely to need to move from a Primary to a Precise statement?
  • Whatproblem behaviors are most common?
    • ODR per Problem Behavior
  • Where are problem behaviors most likely?
    • ODR per Location
  • Whenare problem behaviors most likely?
    • ODR per time of day
  • Who is engaged in problem behavior?
    • ODR per student
  • Why are problem behaviors sustaining?
    • Custom graph
slide67

Define Problems with precision

What

When

Where

Why

Who

Designing Effective Behavior Support

primary versus precision statements
Primary versus Precision Statements
  • Primary Statements
    • Too many referrals
    • September has more suspensions than last year
    • Gang behavior is increasing
    • The cafeteria is out of control
    • Student disrespect is out of control
  • Precision Statements
    • There are more ODRs for aggression on the playground than last year. These are most likely to occur during first recess, with a large number of students, and the aggression is related to getting access to the new playground equipment.
primary versus precision statements1
Primary versus Precision Statements
  • Primary Statements
    • Too many referrals
    • September has more suspensions than last year
    • Gang behavior is increasing
    • The cafeteria is out of control
    • Student disrespect is out of control
  • Precision Statements
    • There are more ODRs for aggressionon the playground than last year. These are most likely to occur during first recess, with a large number of students, and the aggression is related to getting access to the new playground equipment.
examples primary to precise
Examples: Primary to Precise
  • Gang-like behavior is increasing
  • Texting during school is becoming more negative
  • Bullying (verbal and physical aggression) on the playground is increasing during “first recess,” is being done mostly by four 4th grade boys, and seems to be maintained by social praise from the bystander peer group.
  • A large number of students in each grade level (6, 7, 8) are using texting to spread rumors, and harass peers. Texting occurs both during the school day, and after school, and appears to be maintained by attention from others.
examples primary to precise1
Examples: Primary to Precise
  • Carly is having reading difficulties
  • Jack is having lots of trouble at home
  • Carly is reading 20 cwpm (goal is 60), skips or guesses at words she doesn’t know, mostly during language arts
  • Carly can not decode and struggles to read words containing R controlled vowels, digraphs, & long vowels
  • Jack screams and cries at home, daily, when asked to get in car, do homework, and get ready for bed. He does not like riding in the car and does not like doing school work at home.
precise or primary statement
Precise or Primary Statement?
  • James D. is hitting others in the cafeteria during lunch, and his hitting is maintained by peer attention.
  • Boys are engaging in sexual harassment.
  • Three 5th grade boys are name calling and touching girls inappropriately during recess in an apparent attempt to obtain attention.

Precise

Primary

Precise

cost benefits of problem solving with precise problem statements

Cost Benefits of Problem Solving with Precise Problem Statements

A Hypothetical Example based on:

Todd, A. W., Haugen, L., Anderson, K., & Spriggs, M. (2002). Teaching Recess: Low Cost Efforts Producing Effective Results. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions. Vol 4. (1). pp. 46-52.

elementary school title 1
Elementary School (Title 1)
  • Total enrollment= 550
      • 3 classes per grade level
      • 18 classrooms (30/class)
  • Primary Problem Statement
    • fighting and physical aggression on playground
      • 550 students full playground area, expectations, equipment use
  • Precise Problem Statement
    • High rates of physical aggression, disrespect and inappropriate language on the playground during second and third grade recess. Many students are involved and it appears they are trying to get access to equipment/games
      • 180 2ne/3rd graders, routine for accessing/sharing equipment/games
slide75
Savings in Planning & Implementation TimeMoving from Primary Problem Statements to Precision Problem Statement

hours

develop a process routine standard for defining problems with precision
Develop a process/ routine & standard for defining problems with precision
  • Requires team member discipline
    • Starting with data summary and previous meeting minutes
    • Basic & custom report generation in database during meetings
    • Team time for thoroughness
    • Team member responsibility to note solution ideas & wait for discussion about solutions
  • Use visual reminders
    • TIPS Table Tents , Meeting Minute Form, Agenda on board
slide77

Identify

Problems

Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model

Develop

Hypothesis

Evaluate and

Revise

Action Plan

Collect

and Use

Data

Discuss and

Select

Solutions

Develop and

Implement

Action Plan

Problem SolvingMeeting Foundations

slide78

Last year we had an increasing trend during first 3 months.

  • (.5-2.2/day above national median)
  • .5-1.0 per day above national median for remainder of school year.
identified problem goal statements
Identified Problem & Goal Statements

Identified Problem

  • Last year we had an increasing trend during first 3 months. (.5-2.2/day above national median)
    • .5-1.0 per day above national median for remainder of school year.

SW Goal

  • The Average ODRs per day per month will be at or below the national median for our school our size and grade levels, as measured in our SWIS data
activity 3
Activity #3
  • Use the 09-10 SWIS data summary to determine if you have a problem with majors only
  • Review your average per day per month graph
    • Click on advanced options to add national data line
    • Develop a written statement about these data to answer
      • Do you have a problem?
      • Do we have trends?
      • Comparisons?

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

activity 4
Activity #4
  • Use the 10-11 SWIS data summary to determine if you have a problem with minors only
  • Review your average per day per month graph
    • Click on advanced options to add national data line
    • Develop a written statement about these data to answer
      • Do you have a problem?
      • Do we have trends?
      • Comparisons?

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

define problem
Define problem
  • Have current & accurate data with ability to generate custom reports before & during meetings
    • Start with data that are summarized as primary statements
  • Use data to define precision problem statement(s)
    • A problem exists, when there is a discrepancy between current level and desired level
    • Define a primary problem statement
    • Use basic and custom reports to define problem with precision
    • What, Where, When, Who, Why
    • Discrimination/ motor/ self-management errors
  • Define goal(s)
    • What will those data look like when there is not a problem?
    • SMART goals:

Specific, Measureable, Achievable, Relevant, Timely

primary to precision
Primary to Precision
  • Use other reports for generating precision problem statement(s)
    • Start with primary statement
    • Separate problems
    • Engage in problem solving with one problem at a time
      • Make priorities for what problems to deal with & when
        • Safety, Time, Intensity, Frequency, Resources
primary to precision1
Primary to Precision
  • Last year we had an increasing trend during first 3 months. (.5-2.2/day above national median)

.5-1.0 per day above national median for remainder of school year. Inappropriate language, disrespect, physical aggression, harassment, disruption, in class & common areas (hall, café, playground, commons), 9:45, 12:45-1:30, 11:30-12:15, lots of students, in grades 3-8

activity 5
Activity #5
  • Review the SWIS data summary and determine what, where, when problem behaviors are occurring and who are the students contributing to the problem

(for majors or minors)

  • Record your problem statement for what, where, when, by whom, on your TIPS worksheet

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

use those data precision to effective solution action planning
Use those dataprecision to effective solution/action planning
  • Use custom reports to define the ‘scope’ of the problem.
  • With each question comes more precision/ verification
    • What grade levels are students in?
    • What problem behaviors do those students in those grade levels engage in?
    • Where?
    • When?
    • Why?
  • Implications for what Teams need:
    • data that are available & customizable
    • a person who can navigate (create custom reports) the database being used
    • a person who can serve as data analyst to make data summaries
slide95

Time

Inappropriate Language

slide96

6th and 7th graders, in classroom,

engaging in inappropriate language

slide97

Possible Motivation

Inappropriate Language

slide98

6th and 7th graders, in classroom,

engaging in inappropriate language

6th and 7th graders

precision problem statement
Precision Problem Statement
  • 6th and 7th graders are engaging in inappropriate language, harassment, disrespect and aggression in two classrooms at 9:45 and 12:45 to get peer and adult attention and to escape the work.
  • There are 175 total instances of problem behavior in 6th and 7th grade classrooms, for 2010-11 school year.
slide101

Harassment = 32

Physical Aggression = 39 Disrespect = 42

slide102

Location

Playground = 64

Cafeteria = 44

Class = 12

slide103

Time

11:30-12:15 = 81

1:30 = 19

slide104

3rd graders

11:30-12:15

Physical Aggression

Harassment

Disrespect

Cafeteria and Playground

slide105

Motivation

3rd graders

11:30-12:15

To get peer attention

3 rd grade precision problem statement
3rd grade precision problem statement
  • Between 11:30-12:15, 3rd graders are engaging in physical aggression, harassment, and disrespect, in cafeteria and on playground to get peer attention
  • Who is contributing to the problem?
    • Custom report, show student names
slide108

Custom graph

3rd graders

11:30-12:15

Show student names

slide109

Custom graph

3rd graders

11:30-12:15

Show student names

slide110

Custom graph

3rd graders

11:30-12:15

Show student names

activity 6 define and clarify problem
Activity #6Define and Clarify Problem
  • Generate a list of questions you have of your data
    • What custom reports will you want to look at this afternoon during your meeting?

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

building goals
Building Goals
  • Define the problem with precision
  • Define the measure of the problem (level, amount)
  • Define what would be considered “good”
  • Use the Goal to guide the Solution.
      • How can we move from where we are to where we want to be?
slide116
Goal
  • Reduce frequency of problem behavior in 7th & 8th grade classrooms by half (85) for 2011-2012. No more than 8 per month.
defining goals outcomes
Defining Goals/Outcomes
  • SMART Goals

Specific Measurable Achievable Relevant Timely

    • Fidelity of implementation at 80% or higher
    • Reduction or increase in student academic and/or social behavior
  • For social behavior, use national SWIS summary data for initial goal setting
    • Our rate of problem behavior will be at or below the national median for schools our size
  • Use precision problem statement for refining the goal
    • Problem behavior hallways will be reduced by 50%, monthly, by June.

OR

    • Problem behavior in hallways during the lunch passing times (11:45-12:45) will be reduced by 50%, monthly, by June.

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

goal for a problem
Goal for a Problem…
  • Base on team-established standard
  • Easier to monitor if quantifiable (“countable”)
  • Record on meeting minute form for progress monitoring at future meeting(s)

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

action plan goals
Action Plan Goals
  • Percent reduction to be achieved & maintained:
    • “Reduce cafeteria disruptions by 75% & maintain for remainder of school year.”

OR

  • Absolute reduction to be achieved & maintained:
    • “Reduce cafeteria disruptions to an average of no more than 2 per month & maintain for remainder of school year.”

And/ OR

  • Scale/satisfaction level to be achieved & maintained:
    • “All school personnel assigned to cafeteria between 11:30 AM and 12:00 PM will rate the level of disruptions to be ‘acceptable’ ( 4 or more on 5 point scale) or better; rating maintained during bi-weekly reviews conducted throughout remainder of school year.”

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

slide120

Last year 6th and 7th graders were engaging in inappropriate language, harassment, disrespect and aggression mostly in two classrooms at 9:45 and 12:45 to get peer and adult attention and to escape the work. There were 175 total instances of problem behavior in 6th and 7th grade classrooms, for 2010-11 school year.

Reduce frequency of problem behavior in 7th & 8th grade classrooms by half (85) for 2011-2012. No more than 8 per month.

activity 7
Activity #7
  • Develop a Goal for the problem
    • Write the precision problem statement on P-S Action Plan/Meeting Minute form
    • Define level of problem
    • Define goal
  • What will it look like for us to not have a problem?

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

using data to build solutions
Using Data to Build Solutions
  • Prevention: How can we avoid the problem context?
    • Who, When, Where
    • Schedule change, curriculum change, etc
  • Teaching: How can we define, teach, and monitor what we want?
    • Teach appropriate behavior
    • Use problem behavior as negative example
  • Recognition: How can we build in systematic reward for desired behavior?
  • Extinction: How can we prevent problem behavior from being rewarded?
  • Consequences: What are efficient, consistent consequences for problem behavior?
  • How will we collect and use data to evaluate (a) implementation fidelity, and (b) impact on student outcomes?
solution development

Focus on prevention first. How could we reduce the situations that lead to these behaviors?

  • How do we ensure that students know what they SHOULD be doing when these situations arise?
  • How do we ensure that appropriate behavior is recognized?
  • How do we work to ensure that problem behavior is NOT being rewarded.
  • Are corrective consequences needed?
  • How will we know (a) if we are doing what we plan, and (b) if what we plan is working to benefit students?
Solution Development
swis demo school identified problem s
SWIS Demo SchoolIdentified Problem(s)
  • Identified problem
    • Last year we had an increasing trend during first 3 months. (.5-2.2/day above national median)
      • .5-1.0 per day above national median for remainder of school year. Inappropriate language, disrespect, physical aggression, harassment, disruption, in class & common areas (hall, café, playground, commons), 9:45, 12:45-1:30, 11:30-12:15, lots of students, in grades 3-8
    • 6th and 7th graders in the classroom
    • 3rd graders?
slide125

SWIS Demo School School Problem Statement

6th and 7th graders are engaging in inappropriate language, harassment, disrespect and aggression in two classrooms at 9:45 and 12:45 to get peer and adult attention and to escape the work. There are 175 total instances of problem behavior in 6th and 7th grade classrooms, for 2010-11 school year.

swis demo school solution actions
SWIS Demo SchoolSolution Actions
  • Choose the solutions that will create an environment that makes the problem irrelevant, inefficient, and ineffective.
    • Choose least amount of work that will have the biggest impact on decreasing the problem.
  • Implementing the solution requires action and time lines
  • Problems need goals so that we can measure progress and know when to move on.
slide127

Set up daily double (class period without problem behavior = 2 min talk time

Ensure staff use routine for responding to a report when student comes to talk

activity 8
Activity #8
  • Using your precision statement, begin discussing discuss solution options that might work, make notes of your ideas
  • If you do not have a precision statement yet, use the following:

Between 11:30-12:15, many 3rd graders are engaging in physical aggression, harassment, and disrespect, in cafeteria and on playground to get peer attention.

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

slide129

Activity #8 Solution Developmentproblem statement & hypothesis:Between 11:30-12:15, many 3rd graders are engaging in physical aggression, harassment, and disrespect, in cafeteria and on playground to get peer attention

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

slide130

Activity #8 Solution Developmentproblem statement & hypothesis:Between 11:30-12:15, many 3rd graders are engaging in physical aggression, harassment, and disrespect, in cafeteria and on playground to get peer attention

Re-teach stop-talk-walk routine

Bystanders remind peers to use stop-walk-talk

Use reporting routine

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

action planning
Action Planning
  • Every Solution needs an action plan
    • Who will do what
    • By when
evaluation planning
Evaluation Planning
  • SMART Goals
      • Specific
      • Measureable
      • Achievable
      • Relevant
      • Timely
  • Evaluation Plan for progress monitoring fidelity and impact on student behavior
    • Evaluate fidelity of implementation
      • How and when
    • Evaluate effect of solutions on student behavior
      • What data will be used & how often?
    • Data analyst with data summaries and data access
fidelity of implementation
Fidelity of Implementation
  • Before determining if an intervention (solutions) had an impact on student behavior…
    • Ensure a high level of implementation fidelity
    • Define how fidelity data will be collected & when those data will be collected
    • Define process & schedule for the data analyst to access data needed for team progress monitoring
fidelity of implementation1
Fidelity of Implementation
  • Measure the degree in which the intervention was implemented as defined/expected
    • Use percent/absolute value/ rate/scale as metric
    • Strive for 80% fidelity of implementation as measured weekly (bi-weekly) on scale of 1-5
  • Make easy for staff to record data
    • Fidelity Check Board: X on number line
    • Fist of five
    • Fidelity check basket
    • Direct observation

Are we implementing the plan?

1 2 3 4 5

No Yes

fidelity check routine we do what we say we will do we do it with 80 fidelity
Fidelity Check RoutineWe do what we say we will do & we do it with 80% fidelity

Establish a fidelity check routine that relates to School Wide Implementation

A 1-5 scale is used for all questions, with up to three questions per week

At staff meeting, use fist of five while asking questions

In staff room, create number line poster with questions

Did you stand in hallway during passing periods?

2 3 4 5

No Yes

Did you acknowledge 5 students, not in your classroom, daily?

2 3 4 5

No Yes

evaluation planning1
Evaluation Planning
  • Every problem needs to be monitored and evaluated
    • Fidelity of Implementation
    • Effectiveness of Implementation

Measure used, schedule and format for collecting those data

slide137

Set up daily double (class period without problem behavior = 2 min talk time

Ensure staff use routine for responding to a report when student comes to talk

activity 9 15 minutes evaluation planning
Activity #9 (15 minutes)Evaluation Planning

For your problem define:

  • Goal
  • Fidelity of implementation plan
      • What data will be gathered, how often, and by whom?
  • Effectiveness of implementation plan/ measuring student outcomes
      • What data will be gathered, how often, and by whom?
progress monitoring effects of solution
Progress Monitoring effects of solution
  • What is current status of problem before implementation of solution?
    • What is percent reduction during a current time period (e.g., last 3 mos., last 90 days, etc.) before ANY of the solution tasks have been implemented
    • Pre or baseline scores
  • Progress Monitoring during Solution phase:
    • Rate of problem at regular intervals (e.g., prior to each team meeting) after ALL of the solution tasks have been implemented
    • Post scores

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

monitor progress toward goal
Monitor Progress toward goal
  • 7th-8th grader problem behavior in classroom

Sept 2011

Oct 2011

remember the goal for average day month graph
Remember the Goal for Average/day/month graph?

The Average ODRs per day per month will be at or below the national median for our school our size and grade levels, as measured in our SWIS data

A year later…

How are we doing?

slide142

Identify

Problems

Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model

Develop

Hypothesis

Evaluate and

Revise

Action Plan

Collect

and Use

Data

Discuss and

Select

Solutions

Develop and

Implement

Action Plan

Problem SolvingMeeting Foundations

team progress monitoring of tips
Team Progress Monitoring of TIPS
  • At beginning of the year, mid year and end of year, teams
    • Complete the TIPS Team Fidelity of Implementation Checklist
    • Create action plans for items that are not implemented or in progress.
    • Use meeting minute form to document plan & monitor progress
  • At the end of each meeting
    • Teams complete a short evaluation of the meeting
    • Document responses on meeting minute form
    • Make adjustments as needed
slide144
Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.
slide145
Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.
the problem solving mantra
The Problem-Solving “Mantra”
  • Do we have a problem?(identify)
  • What is the precise nature of our problem?(define, clarify, confirm/disconfirm inferences)
  • Why does the problem exist, & what can we do about it?(hypothesis & solution)
  • What are the actual elements of our plan?(Action Plan)
  • Is our plan being implemented, & is it working?(evaluate & revise plan)
  • What is the goal?

(What will it look like when there is not a problem?)

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon, unpublished training manual.

activity 10
Activity #10
  • Hold a team ‘meeting’
    • Practice meeting foundations
    • Use your problem from today’s Activity #5 as a start up point for your ‘meeting’
  • Be ready to start up next team meeting with previous (today’s) meeting minutes & data summaries for moving forward with progress monitoring toward your goal.
slide149

Identify

Problems

Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model

Develop

Hypothesis

Evaluate and

Revise

Action Plan

Collect

and Use

Data

Discuss and

Select

Solutions

Develop and

Implement

Action Plan

Problem SolvingMeeting Foundations

coaches fidelity checklist
Coaches Fidelity Checklist
  • Phases of Meetings
    • Before the Meeting
    • During the Meeting
    • After the Meeting

Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon. Unpublished training manual.

slide154

Identify

Problems

Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Model

Develop

Hypothesis

Evaluate and

Revise

Action Plan

Collect

and Use

Data

Discuss and

Select

Solutions

Develop and

Implement

Action Plan

Problem SolvingMeeting Foundations