Chapter 3 Section 3: The Assyrian and Persian Empires - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 3 Section 3: The Assyrian and Persian Empires

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Chapter 3 Section 3: The Assyrian and Persian Empires

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  1. Chapter 3 Section 3: The Assyrian and Persian Empires • Hundred of years after Hammurabi’s death in 1750 BCE the Assyrians united the region again. The Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires • Assyria lies north of Babylon along the Tigris River A Military State • After Babylonia fell, the Assyrians fought against a steady stream of invaders. • They became fierce warriors • World’s first cavalry • Soldiers who fight while riding horses • Used iron weapons and tools • By mid 800’s BCE- strong military state • By mid 600’s BCE- became an empire

  2. Governing the Empire • Divided into 70 smaller units called provinces • Assigned a governor to each province • Ashurbanipal made Neneveh the capital • Built a library- 20,000 tablets survive today Babylon Restored • After Ashurbanipal’s death • Civil war and enemy attacks weaken empire • 604 BCE Nebuchadnezzar became king of Babylon • Captured Jerusalem and destroyed Jewish temple • Became known as the Neo-Babylonian empire • Built large buildings, great walls, gates, and temples • Built Hanging Gardens of Babylon

  3. Rise of the Persian Empire • Babylon’s thick walls and strong gates could not keep out conquerors • In 539 BCE, Persian empire took control • Within 30 years, Persian empire became the largest empire the world had ever seen Cyrus the Great • Read MyStory • In 550 BCE, Cyrus the Great conquered the Medes • Rapid growth was due to it’s highly skilled standing army • A permanent army of professional soldiers • 10,000 elite soldiers known as the “Immortals” Conquest of Babylon • Cyrus treated the Babylonians well • Let them keep their own customs and religions • Allowed Jewish people to return to Jerusalem Further Expansion • Cyrus died in battle in 530 BCE • Son Cambyses took over and continued to expand empire • Cambyses died and Darius took the throne by force • Empire grew larger

  4. Persia’s Government and Religion • Darius gave local people some control over their government Local Self-Government • Divided empire into satrapies, or provinces and chose a leader for each one • Keep their local laws and traditions Central Control • Darius improved government finances • Each province paid tribute according to it’s wealth • Created common currency- gold coins New Roads • Darius built roads • Set-up postal stations along the 1,500 Great Royal Road • took three months from one end to the other Religion • By 600 BCE, Persian man named Zoroaster taught that there was one supreme god, Ahura Mazda • Developed into Zorastrianism and became Persian’s official religion • Sacred text is the Avesta • Universe is in a state of struggle between the forces of good and evil • People have an important role to play in this conflict working for good • Afterlife existed

  5. Arts of Mesopotamia • Give us a glimpse of daily life Seals • Used carved stone seals to identify the owner of an object Sculptures • Looked like real humans • Created a form of sculpture called relief • The scene sticks out from the surface of the base material • Stele is a carved stone slab or pillar that stands on end • Stele of Hammurabi’s code is a famous example- pg 122

  6. Fertile Crescent Peoples

  7. Chapter 3 Section 3 Quiz • What do cavalry soldiers do? • fire cannons • fix chariots • march in formation • ride horses • What was new technology used by the Assyrians? • farming • glass blowing • ironwork • resettling conquered peoples • What is a permanent force of professional soldiers called? • charioteers • “The Immortals” • special forces • standing army • Payment made to show loyalty to a stronger power is called • a seal • taxes • tribute • currency • What is a stele? • A cylinder seal • colorful tiles • a stone slab • a ziggurat garden