Chapter 3 Section 3 Norms and Values
Norms: The Rules We Live By • Norms- are rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior. • Norms are learned and society uses them to guide behavior. • Norms are so ingrained that our behavior is affected with out our awareness.
Folkways: Norms that lack moral significance. Ex. Certain ways of dress, removing your hat when you eat. Not considered vital to group welfare. Not too big of deal if broken. Mores: Norms that have moral dimensions and that should be followed by members of the society. Norms with great moral significance. Vital to well-being of a society. 3 Basic Norms: Folkways, Mores and Laws.
Mores continued… • Difference between Folkways and Mores? • Folkways: personal choice. (supporting sports) • Mores: social requirement. (able bodied men work) Taboo- A rule of behavior, the violation of which calls for strong punishment. • Ex. Hindu’s- killing of cows. • Incest taboos-sexual contact with relatives.
Laws • Laws: a norm that is formally defined and enforced by officials. • Consciously created and enforced. • Mores are important sources for laws. Can folkways become laws? Yes Example: smoking
Enforcing the Rules • Sanctions- are rewards and punishments used to encourage people to follow norms. Two Different types: Formal & Informal Formal Sanctions- sanctions imposed by persons given special authority. ex. Medals for Soldiers, Grading by Teachers.
Sanctions continued… • Informal Sanctions- Rewards or punishments that can be applied by most members of a group. • Can be positive or negative. • Used for a reason, not random. Ex. Positive- Helping someone Negative- Shushing someone in a theatre
Values- The Basis for Norms • What are Values? • Values: are broad ideas about what is good or desirable shared by people in a society. • Very general, do not dictate precise ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving. • Different societies or groups in a societies can have different norms based on the same value. What are the importance of Values? -Influence human social behavior. -Forms the basis for norms.
Basic Values in the United States • Sociologist Robin Williams (1970) - List of values that guides daily lives of people: • Achievement and success • Activity and work • Efficiency and practicality • Equality • Democracy • Group Superiority