Vysoká škola báňská - Technická univerzita Ostrava Ekonomická fakulta Spatial Planning and Tourism Development in Portugal Sandra Bailoa & Pedro Cravo School of Technology and Management of Beja Czech Republic, Ostrava, April 27th 2010
SpatialPlanning Territory (the land) different dimensions: - Physical - Economic - Social - Cultural - Environmental It is the physical space where the activities of human beings are developed.
The Portuguese Territory Location • Portugal is situated in the southwestextremity of the European continent • In the Occidental part of the Iberian Peninsula • With a rectangular shape, Portugal is bordered by Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east.
Autonomous Regions The archipelagos (group of islands) of Madeira and Azores are part of the territory. They are located in the Atlantic Ocean, Southwest and the West of mainland respectively. Total Country area: 92117 Km2 Azores Madeira
Portuguese speaking countries are:Angola,Brazil, Cape Verde,Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and Timor.
The European Union Portugal is part of a vaster territory (Europe) and several international institutions: - NATO; - OECD; - FAO; - IMF; - UN. Most important, it is member of the European Union since 1986 European Union Member States
Portugal and its Population From 1950 until 1973-74 there was a reduction of population because of the emigration movements: France, Belgium, Luxemburg and Germany. In 1975-76 there was a growth population because Portugal received more than half million people with the end of war in the former Portuguese colonies (Africa). In the 1990s Portugal startedto be an immigration country. In 2010 the population is 10.658.545 individuals - 51,6% women - 48,4% men Populationdensity: 112,4 inhabitants/km2 Resident Population in Portugal (in thousand)
Population density by municipality - 2007 The map shows, the concentration of population in 3 main costal regions: - Lisbon - Porto - Algarve 65% of the population lives in just 28% of the mainland It shows that Portuguese prefer to live in these regions because they are the most dynamic economically and they are specialized in industry and urban services, and it is where are the major cities. Porto Lisbon Beja Algarve
Levels of Territorial Analysis • International • National • Regional • Local
Returning to Spatial Planning The terms: • spatial planning, • land use planning, • town and country planning, • regional planning, • urban planning, are often used interchangeably, and will depend on the country in question. Despite confusing nomenclature, the essential function of land use planning remains the same whatever term is applied.
One Definition There are numerous definitions of spatial planning. According to the Portuguese Constitution: Spatial Planning aims to ensure the adequate location of activities, a balanced social and economic development and the enhancement of the landscape, and is an essential responsibility of the State, to be carried out with citizen participation, in a framework of sustainable development. The spatial planning is, basically, the managementof the natural interaction between man and space.
It is essentially used to correct the space effect of human and economic agents activities. • Planners deal with land use and also: • conversion of land from natural habitats to urban built areas, • protection of natural resources, habitats and environment • development of transportation and infrastructure, • planning social and community services, • managing cultural and heritage resources, • creating economic capacity in local communities. • Responsible planning has always been vital to the sustainability of safe, healthy, and secure urban environments.
At its most basic level spatial planning is likely to involve zoning and transport infrastructure planning. Functions of Spatial Planning In most developed countries, spatial planning is also, an important part of social policy, ensuring that land is used efficiently for the benefit of the wider economy and population as well as to protect the environment.
Spatial planning encompasses the following subjects: Land use planning Regional planning Sustainable development Architecture Urban planning Urban renewal Landscape architecture Transportation planning Environmental planning Also Related to Spatial Planning
- national defence, security and civil protection areas - resources and natural values - agricultural and forest areas - ecological structure - architectural and archaeological heritage - accessibilities network - infrastructures and collective equipment network - urban system - location and distribution of economic activities Resources Used onSpatial and Urban Planning
Initiatives for the Spatial Planning in Europe • By the end of the millennium, strategic spatial plans and frameworks were back in fashion among Europe´s planning policy and were actively being promoted by European Union initiatives. • The activities of the Council of Europe, relating to spatial planning, began in 1970 in Bonn where the first European Conference of Ministers responsible for Regional Planning (CEMAT) was held. • Fundamental documents, which have guided spatial planning policies, have from time to time been adopted during the activities carried out over the years.
The European Regional/Spatial Planning Charter (1983) One of the most important documents, gives us a important Spatial Planning lesson. It presents one of the earliest spatial planning definitions: "Regional/spatial planning gives geographical expression to the economic, social, cultural and ecological policies of society. It is at the same time a scientific discipline, an administrative technique and a policy developed as an interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach directed towards a balanced regional development and the physical organisation of space according to an overall strategy.“ Characteristics of spatial planning: Democratic; Comprehensive; Functional; Long-term.
Fundamental objectives • balanced socio-economic development of the regions; • improvement of the quality of life; • responsible management of natural resources and protection of the environment; • and rational use of land. • Implementation of spatial planning objectives • It seeks co-ordination between the various sectors • It facilitates co-ordination and co-operation between the various levels of decision-making and the equalisation of financial resources • Public participation
The aim of spatial development policies is to work towards a balanced and sustainable development of the EU territory, that we can see in the ESDP triangle of objectives linking the three following fundamental goals of European policy. The ESDP (European Spatial Development Perspective) sustainable development tries to reconcile the social and economic functions with the ecological Three policy guidelines have constituted the basis for the territorial development of the EU: • Development of a Balanced and Polycentric Urban System and a New Urban-Rural Relationship, • Securing Parity of Access to Infrastructure and Knowledge, • Sustainable Development, PrudentManagement and Protection of Nature and Cultural Heritage. Triangle of Objectives: a Balanced and Sustainable Spatial Development, ESDP
Territorial Agenda for the European Union Is a strategic and action oriented framework for the territorial development of Europe and contributes to economic growth and sustainable development by strengthening territorial cohesion . Built upon the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP). Contains a programme of joint activities, on which the Ministers have agreed totake an active role during the period 2007–2010. Provides a strategic framework with Priorities for Territorial Development in Europe: 1 Promoting Urban Development in a Polycentric Pattern 2 Strengthening UrbanRural Partnership 3 Promoting TransNational Competitive and Innovative Regional Clusters 4 Strengthening TransEuropean Technological Networks 5 Promoting TransEuropean Risk Management 6 Strengthening Ecological Structures and Cultural Resources
Spatial Planning andRegional Development One of Spatial planning main goals is the regional development. • Spatial Development Disparities • We can observe in all the countries economic differences between its regions. • - differences in the distribution of income; • - differences in productivity levels; • - differences in access to the labour market; • - differences in access to the essential goods and services. • These differences are regional disparities, they are regional inequalities of welfare or development between regions. central London is one of the richest in EU The poorest part of the EU is in Romania
EU shows serious economic imbalances impeding the realisation of sustainable spatial development. To measure regional disparities we can use different indicators like: - GDP per capita, - Unemployment rate, - Number of hospital beds per 1000 inhabitants, - Alphabetization rate, - Education degree, - Birth rate, - Mortality rate, - Life expectancy, - Pollution rate, - Cost of living, etc. In the map we can see the differences between E.U. territories in relation to the GPD per capita
Regional and Local Development Policies At each level Governments adopt policies to reduce Regional Disparities. At the regional level: Incentives regarding location Ways of providing a financial support to encourage the companies location in certain regions: • Grants to enterprises; • Direct financial support indexed on precise objectives: training, research, purchase of equipment, etc.. • Taxes reduction; • Measures to reduce the capital cost (loan guarantees, preferential interest rates, etc.); • Reduction of some costs, such as electricity, postal tariffs and infrastructures.
Investments in public infrastructure and public facilities in disadvantaged areas (tries to give the regions a stock of public capital to convince companies to settle there or to expand: industrial parks, hospitals, schools, research centers, sanitation, infrastructure, electricity, water and telecommunications, among others) Investments in transport and communication (To remove the isolation of the less developed regions: roads, highways, railroads, high-speed lines, airports, ports ) Decentralization of government (the goal is the redistributing regional employment) Income inter-regional redistribution (financial support to families and to local authorities)
The European Union’s Regional Policy Why do we need regional policy? To reduce economic and social disparities between EU regions. The EU comprises 27 Member States and 493 million citizens. The economic and social disparities among these countries and their 268 regions are great. The regional policy uses a variety of financing operations mainly the Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund.
Key Objectives • For the period 2007-2013, the regional policy has a budget of €348 billion. • EU Regional Policy has 3 three objectives for the 2007-2013 period: • Convergence; Regional Competitiveness and Employment; and European Territorial Cooperation • And uses the following 3funds: • The EuropeanFund for RegionalDevelopment (ERDF), • The European SocialFund (ESF), • The Cohesion Fund
At the local level: • To promote entrepreneurship • To develop policies to support SMEs • The support of Local authorities can play an important role in local development: • To reduce local taxes • Giving special conditions in local tariffs (water, electricity,…); • Creating benefits in the use of land or buildings (rent at low rates); • Construction of public infrastructures (roads, industrial parks,…). • To encourage private and mixed networks of interaction • To mobilize the endogenous development (local productions…)
Spatial and Urban Planning in Portugal • The basis for the present spatial and urban planning policy was established in August 1998, with the approval by Parliament, of Law 48/98. • This Law of the Parliament: • defines the framework for the spatial and urban planning policy considering the European framework, • defines a territorial management system, • regulates the vertical and horizontal inter-relationships between the different levels and sectors of public administration, • and calls for citizen, social and economic sectors participation.
The Portuguese Administrative Structure Has three levels: • the national • the regional • Two autonomous regions – Azores and Madeira • In the mainland there are no formal regions, but decentralized bodies of central administration • the local • a total of 308 municipalities, of which 19 in Azores and 11 in Madeira
Responsibility for the Spatial Planning Policy • At the national level(in the central government): • Ministry for Environment,Spatial planning and RegionalDevelopment (MAOTDR) • The Directorate General forSpatial Planning and UrbanDevelopment (DGOTDU) • Its the department of central administration responsible for the preparation, implementation and assessment of the spatial and urban planning policy.
At regional level • Administrative regions • ►Madeira - the Regional Directorate for Spatial Planning • ►Azores - the Regional Directorate for Spatial Planning and Water Resources • Regional Coordination and Development Commissions (CCDR) - decentralized bodies of central administration present on the other 5 NUTS II regions
At local level • City councils • Spatial planning is a direct responsibility of the local authorities, they prepare, approve and implement spatial plans. Lisbon city council
Other Legal Instruments Two legal regimes play a decisive role in the preparation of Portuguese land-use plans: • RAN (National Agricultural Reserve), imposes restrictions in land-use in agricultural areas classified by the Ministry of Agriculture. • REN (National Ecological Reserve), imposes restrictions in land-use in ecosystems considered essential to the ecological balance of the municipality that were classified by municipal level.
Inter-Plans Coordination Relationships between the plans in the Portuguese territorial management system (defined on law 48/98) All the territorial planning tools are mandatory for public administration, but only the local and the special plans are for everyone (public and private).
The biggest Spatial planning problems in Portugal We can group them into 6 categories: 1-Insufficient valuing of natural resources and inefficient risk management Fires
3-Economic and environmental inefficiency and unsustainability on transports and energy;
4-Insufficient systems to support the competitiveness, connectivity and international projection of economy
5-Inadequate distribution of territorial collective equipment and infrastructure;
6-Lack of a civic culture of spatial planning and inefficiency of the information systems, planning and territorial management
The National Spatial Policy Program (NSPP) for theperiod 2005-2025, has six major strategic goals: 1. To conserve and value the natural and cultural heritage, to use in a sustainable way the energy and geologic resources, and to prevent and minimize the risks. 2. To reinforce Portugal's territorial competitiveness and its integration in the Iberian, European, Atlantic and global spaces. 3. To promote the polycentric development and to reinforce support infrastructures. 4. To assure equity in the provision of collective equipment and infrastructure. 5. To expand networks and infrastructures of information and communication. 6. To reinforce the quality and the efficiency of the territorial management.
Tourism some concepts
The Tourism Sector • Accommodation • Transportation • Food and Beverage • Attractions • Cultural Activities • Other services and facilities • Tourists • Tourism Industry • Local community
Tourism Characteristics • Tourism products/services intangibility (depending on “printed” descriptions). • Big intensity of information worldwide (importance of communication). • Tourists increasing standards for quality of services/products and information. • Need for sustainable planning and development.