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Spatial Development and Planning in Germany

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  1. Spatial Development and Planningin Germany Manfred Sinz 副局长 联邦交通、建设与城市事务部 柏林,德国 Deputy Director General - Head of Spatial Planning Group Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs Berlin, Germany Presentation 1 at the Seminar of the CEPD April 24th, 2007, Taipei, Republic of China

  2. Spatial Development and Planningin Germany • Urban System and Spatial Categories • Social and Economic Development • Infrastructure and Public Services • Environment • Short Review of Spatial Planning Approaches • Planning System • Tasks and Guidelines • Best Practice • But first: The Federal State and the Länder

  3. “zonal” border 1950 - 1990

  4. Administrative Boundaries • 16 states (Länder) • up to 7 districts per state • + system of spatial planning regions • 323 counties • more than12.000 municipalities

  5. Urban System and Spatial Categories

  6. Central and Peripheral Areas Level of accessibility high low Highways

  7. Social and Economic Development

  8. Land Prices

  9. Development of Population Rate of change shrinking growing

  10. State of Economic Development low high

  11. Level of Contentedness Share of content people in their region Results of an internet poll: Perspektive Deutschland - McKinsey, stern, ZDF and AOL

  12. Infrastructure and Public Services

  13. Central Places and Public Services

  14. Gateway Functions Flight Connections Other Gateway Functions Ports Motorways Railways Accessibility by Car Traffic very good good satisfying bad very bad

  15. Relief and displacement goal

  16. Environment

  17. Safeguarding Natural Ressources and Developing Cultural Landscapes Protection and Risk Management Nature and Open Space Ground Water Rivers and Flood Protection Areas Planning and Shaping Urban Landscapes Regional Parks Rural Landscapes Lakes in former Surface Mining Areas Marine Landscapes

  18. Break

  19. Planning System

  20. Hierarchy of Plans and Programs Spatial Planning at Federal Level Federal Spatial Planning Act establishing the legal framework Principal objective: Sustainable development and creating equivalent living conditions in all parts of the country Spatial Planning at Länder Level Land‘s spatial planning act Land‘s development programs and plans Regional impact assessment procedures Spatial planning at regional level Regional and sub-regional plans Regional impact assessment procedures Land use planning at Communal Level (master planning) preparatory form (land use plan) binding form (local building construction plan) >> Subject to a system of mutual cooperation in the preparation and modification of programs and plans (principle of countervailing influence)

  21. Planning Principles • State planning and the market forces- control of public activities and investment- limited influence on private decisions and investment • Principle of countervailing influence between the different levels of spatial planning • Strong position of regions and municipalities • Combination of legally binding and informal planning

  22. Tasks and Guidelines

  23. Spatial development tasks • Creating equivalent regional living conditions • Pursuing sustainable development • Achieving a balance between strong and disadvantaged regions • Strengthening economic potentials and promoting favourable conditions for regional investment • Establishing a fair division of labour between central cities, surrounding regions and rural periphery • Keeping spatial structures open for future development

  24. Best Practice in Berlin / Brandenburg • The following part is optional in case there are questions and if there is enough time

  25. Does it work? • Efforts to contain urban development: • Supply policy and restrictions • Potential settlement areas and regional parks

  26. Regional parks Both city-regions same scale Built-up area

  27. Regional Parks in Berlin and Brandenburg

  28. Potential settlement area (Type 1) Potential settlement area (Type 2)

  29. Newly built residential space within the suburban area of Berlin Potential settlement areas Rural areas