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Rite of Passage. Rite of Passage Ceremonies that mark a person’s progress from one phase to another They correspond with important events in human life Birth, puberty, mating, old age, death. Rite of Passage. 3 Stage Process 1. Segregation 2. Transition 3. Reintegration.

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rite of passage
Rite of Passage
  • Rite of Passage
    • Ceremonies that mark a person’s progress from one phase to another
    • They correspond with important events in human life
    • Birth, puberty, mating, old age, death
rite of passage1
Rite of Passage
  • 3 Stage Process
    • 1. Segregation
    • 2. Transition
    • 3. Reintegration
3 stages of rite of passage
3 Stages of Rite of Passage
  • Segregation (Separation)
    • Person is separated from rest of society
  • Transition
    • Person is becoming his or her new self and learning the new role. Guides, mentors may be available
  • Reintegration
    • Person is reintegrated into society with a new role
consequences of rite of passage
Consequences of Rite of Passage
  • Produce Cognitive Dissonance in the Individual
  • Produces conformity among new members
  • Helps in the transition to full group membership
  • Links individuals to the community
  • Initiates who feel more rewarded show stronger group identity
examples rites of passage
Examples: Rites of Passage
  • Birth
  • Adulthood
  • Marriage: ex. Bride Kidnapping http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DKAusMNTNnk
  • Death
  • Sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, designed to influence forces on behalf of those who practice it.
manifest function of rituals
Manifest Function of Rituals
  • Intended and recognized consequence
  • Consequences that people observe and expect
  • Manifest Function of Rain Dance: produce rain
latent function of rituals
Latent Function of Rituals
  • Unintended and unrecognized consequence
  • Not explicitly stated
  • Latent Function of Rain Dance: Reinforces group identity by providing a regular opportunity for members of group to meet and engage in a common activity.
can rituals be dysfunctional
Can rituals be dysfunctional?
  • Dysfunctions can be either manifest or latent
  • Dysfunctions have a negative effect on society
  • Manifest Dysfunction of a festivity: Disruption of transportation and excessive production of garbage.
symbolism in ritual
Symbolism in Ritual
  • Symbol: anything that represents something else.
  • What symbolisms are described in this ritual? What do these symbols represent?
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=HtE7eFcKvvs
ritual analysis in sports
Ritual Analysis in Sports
  • Can you find this ritual’s …….?
    • Manifest Function
    • Latent Function
    • Symbolisms
  • Is it possible that this ritual could be dysfunctional in some way?
  • Chicago Bulls Players’ Introduction
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=rYFlzJyxWlw
one more time ritual analysis in sports
One More Time: Ritual Analysis in Sports
  • Can you find this ritual’s …….?
    • Manifest Function
    • Latent Function
    • Symbolisms
  • Is it possible that this ritual could be dysfunctional in some way?
  • All Blacks’ Haka: New Zealand Pre-Game tradition
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ofj3dCKyI38
ritual analysis
Ritual Analysis
  • Who exercises control in rituals?
  • Do rituals exercise control upon their participants or do the participants have control over the ritual?
  • Do the participants have control over this particular ritual?
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=hGFDF96hwTE
rites of passage and the sacred

Rites of Passage and the Sacred

Human Beings, Rituals and Religion

questions to think about
Questions to Think About
  • What is religion?
  • What is the role of religion in society today?
  • What do you think will be the role of religion in the future?
  • Religion: System of roles and norms organized around the sacred, binding people in social groups.
  • According to Sociology, Religion is a social creation
    • Things are sacred if people define it as sacred
  • Religion is related to a culture’s worldview: beliefs regarding the natural and supernatural, and the manner of perceiving and interpreting the world.
  • How does religion affect our worldview? Provide an example
the sacred and the profane
The Sacred and the Profane

Sacred (Religious)

Profane (Secular)

Supernatural world

Inspires awe, respect, reverence

Ordinary world

Commonplace, familiar

  • Most primitive form of religion
  • Beliefs in a supernatural power based on the natural world
  • Animals, plants, mountains, etc. contain spirits
  • Might have been way to understand dreams and other phenomena
forms of animism
Forms of Animism


Shamanism Video

Spirits communicate with one person of the group (shaman).

Magic: Attempt to understand, experience and influence the world using rituals, symbols, and language


Describe both rituals performed by the Chinese shaman.

Is the reporter biased towards shamanism?

forms of animism totemism
Forms of Animism: Totemism
  • Belief in spiritual connection or kinship between humans and animals or plants.
  • Totem (spirit-being) is a symbol representing a family or clan.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OXCdcfxi9vQ
theism belief in a god or gods
Theism: belief in a god or gods



Belief in one God

Judaism, Christianity, Islam

Organizational structure

Sacred Writings

Organized priesthood

Belief in a number of gods


Usually powerful gods over lesser gods

Lesser gods have different spheres of influence

  • Idea that moral principles have a sacred quality
  • Based on truth, honor, tolerance
  • Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto
  • Goal: reach highest human potential
ethicalism ex confucianism
Ethicalism – Ex. Confucianism

The master said, "A young man's duty is to behave well to his parents at home and to his elders abroad, to be cautious in giving promises and punctual in keeping them, to have kindly feelings towards everyone, but seek the intimacy of the Good.“

The master said, "Govern the people by regulations, keep order among them by chastisements, and they will flee from you, and lose all self-respect.  Govern them by moral force, keep order among them by ritual, and they will keep their self-respect and come to you of their own accord."

Document-Based Questions:

1.  How did Confucius feel people should behave toward others? 

2.  What might Confucius think about criminal laws and prisons in the modern world? 

3.  On a personal level, do you respond better to strict rules regarding behavior, or to good examples of proper behavior?

4 different religious bodies
4 Different Religious Bodies
  • Ecclesiae
  • Denominations
  • Cults
  • Sects
  • State Church
  • Large and all-encompassing religious body that tolerates no religious competition.
  • Often highly connected to the economic market and political system of a society.
  • Officials are highly trained and have a lot of power
  • Fundamentalism: strict adherence to the religion’s rules and practices. Belief that religion should be the primary force in one’s life.
  • Exist in societies where churches do not hold a religious monopoly- they are one religion among many.
  • More tolerant of other religions, acknowledging rights of other religions.
  • Ex. Religions in the United States.
  • Relatively small religious organization that typically has split off from a denomination because of differences concerning beliefs.
  • Sects are found in all religions.
  • It is a subjective term and can be thought off as branches of different religions.
  • New religious group whose beliefs and practices differ a lot form those of society’s major religions
  • Group advocates for belief in something new
  • Followers are usually disillusioned by traditional religions. Likely to have a charismatic leader
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ML2Oa4Oigvo
functions of religion
Functions of Religion
  • 1.Social Solidarity
    • Strengthens bond between people and creates sense of community
    • Creates a sense of belonging
    • Makes you feel less alone in the world
    • Provides support and purpose
functions of religion1
Functions of Religion
  • 2. Social Control
    • Encourages conformity to norms
    • Keeps social order by making it divine
    • Rituals like confession serve as emotional release and contribute to unity of the group
functions of religion2
Functions of Religion
  • 3. Emotional Support
    • Helps endure disappointment and suffering
    • Gives hope in the worst of times.
    • Provides answers for ultimate questions.
    • Lessens anxiety and alleviates doubts that may arise from circumstances beyond our control
functions of religion3
Functions of Religion
  • Write an example for each of the different functions of religion we have mentioned before:
    • Social Solidarity
    • Social Control
    • Emotional Support
conflict theory perspective religion as the opium of the people
Conflict Theory PerspectiveReligion as the “Opium of the People”
  • Karl Marx
    • Faith in the promise of rewards in the afterlife prevent people from seeking out the sources of their hardships and from taking action to better their lives.
    • Sport acts as a distraction for people not to see the inequality among social classes.
    • It distracts people from their suffering.