Standard 7 Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it.
Industrial Revolution • It was an ongoing effort over many decades to increase production by using machines powered by sources other than humans or animals. • The most important invention at this time was the steam engine by James Watts.
The Cotton Gin • It is a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers. • It was invented by Eli Whitney. • Gin is short for engine.
The Effects of the Cotton Gin • Profit per pound of cotton skyrocketed, and with it the amount of cotton planted for harvest. • Many southern planters began to depend on cotton as their only major crop. • Planters began to expand their land holdings. • Planters increased the importation and breeding of slaves to keep up with the demand for cotton. • Between 1790 and 1820, the slave population rose from 700,000 to 1.5 million.
· Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, in Georgia.· "Cleaned" the cotton by removing the seeds.· Increased daily production rates from one pound per day, per worker, to as much as 50 pounds per day, per worker. • These statements are describing the • cotton gin. • grist mill. • John Deere plow. • McCormick reaper.
The cotton gin was an important invention because A) it inadvertently led to the spread of slavery. B) it made cotton much easier for slaves to pick. C) it caused people to stop needing so much cotton. D) it angered northern farmers who could afford it.
Which statement is the BEST description of the immediate effect of the cotton gin on cotton production in the south? A) Although now easier to produce, cotton was still less profitable than rice and tobacco. B) Daily rates of production rose from 1 pound of cotton per slave to as much as 50 pounds per slave. C) Daily rates of production rose from 20 pounds of cotton per slave to as much as 40 pounds per slave. D) It had little effect on cotton production because the machines were too expensive for most planters to purchase.
Manifest Destiny • It is the belief that the US was supposed to cover the whole of the North American continent. • From sea to shining sea. • James K. Polk was the president most associated with this concept.
The concept of Manifest Destiny meant it was providential that American settlers • Build railroads to encourage trade between regions • Settle the United States from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean • Establish river towns to encourage the use of steam power • Ban slavery in all new states entering the Union
Whose Presidency was MOST concerned with fulfilling the country's Manifest Destiny? A) John Adams B) James K. Polk C) Andrew Johnson D) William H. Harrison
Overland Trails • People began to travel across the Great Plains following the Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, and the Mormon Trail. • The trip could take up to six months and cost up to $1000. • The pioneers and Native Americans got along quite well in the beginning. • Problems didn’t begin until the 1850s.
Why move West? • Acquisition of lands held by Native Americans • Economic Pressure: • North: War and embargo had lessened opportunity • South: New lands needed for cotton cultivation • Improved Transportation: • Railroads, canals, roads and steam power made travel much easier than in previous times. • Immigration: • Europeans were attracted by the lure of cheap land, not something to be found in most of Europe.
In the early 1800s, many people in the United States migrated westwards because A) of the growing timber industry. B) of the availability of farmland. C) transportation was easy thanks to the Transcontinental Railroad. D) they wanted to escape slavery, which was illegal in western territories.
The Temperance Movement • It was an organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption. • They taught abstinence from alcohol. • Women reformers in particular saw drinking as a threat to family life. • This movement had a dramatic impact on the amount of alcohol consumed between the 1830s and the 1860s.
The Abolitionist Movement • This is the movement to end slavery. • It was started by a group of free African Americans and whites in the 1830s. • The movement steadily increased the tensions between the North and the South.
The Beginnings • From 1777 to 1807, every state north of Maryland passed laws abolishing slavery. • The importing of slaves ended in 1808. • By the end of the 1820s, nearly 50 African American antislavery groups had formed throughout the nation.
Colonization • Some abolitionists favored sending free African Americans and freed slaves back to Africa. • The nation of Liberia was created for this purpose. • Most African Americans viewed themselves as American and did not want to return to Africa. • Colonization was thereby doomed to failure.
Public School • The idea of public school began in New England. • The reasoning being that people needed to be able to read the Bible. • Horace Mann became a leader in the educational reform movement. • He promoted the idea of public education for all.
Horace Mann is MOST associated with what issue during the 19th Century? A) child labor B) education reform C) women's suffrage D) abolition movement
Who led reform of America’s public school system in the 1800s? • Elizabeth Cady Stanton • Andrew Jackson • Eli Whitney • Horace Mann
Cultural and Legal Limits on Women • Most people believed that women should remain in the home. • Most states didn’t even consider the possibility of giving women the right to vote. • As women began to work outside of the home, they generally could not keep the money they earned.
Which statement BEST describes women's suffrage for much of the first century of the United States' history? A) the federal government barred women from voting B) women were allowed to vote in most northern states C) most state Constitutions did not address the issues of women's suffrage D) women could vote only if their husbands gave them legal permission to do so
Fighting for Reform • Women played a prominent role in nearly every avenue of reform, from temperance to abolition.
The Seneca Falls Convention • It was the first women’s rights convention in U.S. history. • The convention was led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott. • It called for suffrage. • The convention lead to considerable public criticism.
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a national meeting at Seneca Falls in 1848. The primary purpose of this convention was to organize the A) abolition movement. B) temperance movement. C) women’s suffrage movement. D) Native American assistance movement.
Jacksonian Democracy Politics of the Common Man • Universal male suffrage • Improved education • State suffrage laws (no religious or property clauses) • Party nominating conventions • Popular elections of electoral college • SC was the only state to have legislature choose • Two Party system • Large political parties are needed to campaign to the electorate • Spoils System • The giving of government jobs to political supporters • Jackson was a strong supporter of this system
The period of "Jacksonian Democracy" can be characterized by A) greater influence of land-owning citizens. B) elimination of the Spoils System in government. C) a decrease in the power of the Executive Branch. D) increasing the right to vote in the United States.
"Jacksonian Democracy" is associated with what political party? A) Democrat B) Federalist C) Republican D) Whig
Jackson and the Indians • Jackson’s democracy was not extended to Native Americans. • He was openly hostile to them, as he had been in the military • In 1830 he signed the Indian Removal Act that sent Native Americans West of the Mississippi to live on reservations • This led to the Trail of Tears • He also defied the Supreme Court ruling in Worcester v. Georgia
·More than 45,000 American Indians were relocated to the West ·About 100 million acres of Indian land was ceded to the U.S.·The Treaty of New Echota was signed, giving up all Cherokee land in Georgia ·Almost 4,000 Cherokee died on what became known as the Trail of Tears • These statements are describing events from the presidency of A) John Marshall. B) Andrew Jackson. C) James Buchanan. D) Winfield Scott.
The Nullification Crisis • Although Jackson was a states’ rights supporter, he was also a Unionist • The Nullification Crisis exploded over the Tariff of 1828, a large tariff on imports • SC held a secession convention and passed a resolution not to collect the tariff. Jackson threatened to send troops. • A compromise was reached when the tariff was lowered and SC disbanded the convention
Jacksonian Democracy in Perspective • Jackson helped to develop the 2 party system • His methods of campaigning were important to help bring democracy to the common man. • By the election of 1840, an unbelievable 78% of eligible voters turned out for the election. • This is testament to the democratic forces unleashed by Jackson and his supporters • His record as a politician is less democratic, with the Indian Removal Act, defying the Supreme Court, and the threat of military action against South Carolina • He was successful in opening up shipping ports in the West Indies.
"Jacksonian Democracy" is associated with which of these characteristics? A) suffrage for all people in the United States B) voting rights extended to all adult, white males C) a nation governed by upper and middle class educated property owners D) laws promising full political equality regardless of race, sex, or wealth