Quantitative network analysis perspectives on mapping change in world system globalization
Download
1 / 25

Quantitative Network Analysis: Perspectives on mapping change in world system globalization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 132 Views
  • Uploaded on

Quantitative Network Analysis: Perspectives on mapping change in world system globalization. Douglas White Robert Hanneman. The Social Network Approach. Structure as: Nodes and edges, or… Actors and relations Dynamics as: Agency – “bottom up” building of ties, but

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Quantitative Network Analysis: Perspectives on mapping change in world system globalization' - cadee


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Quantitative network analysis perspectives on mapping change in world system globalization l.jpg

Quantitative Network Analysis: Perspectives on mapping change in world system globalization

Douglas White

Robert Hanneman


The social network approach l.jpg
The Social Network Approach change in world system globalization

  • Structure as:

    • Nodes and edges, or…

    • Actors and relations

  • Dynamics as:

    • Agency – “bottom up” building of ties, but

    • Embedding – within the emergent constraints of macro-structure


Structure l.jpg
Structure change in world system globalization

  • Nodes can be individuals, organizations, locations, or analytical aggregates

  • Relations can be material exchange, information flow, or shared status

  • What is fundamental are the ties or absence of ties between actors, in addition to the attributes of the actors


I network structures in the world system l.jpg
I. Network structures in the world system change in world system globalization

  • Commodity chains

  • Trade systems, transport and communication

  • Business networks

  • City systems

  • Interstate power


Commodity chains l.jpg
Commodity chains change in world system globalization

White’s analysis of the input-output matrix of the Danish economy – seen as a network – scaled by equivalence of position.

(available for the U.S., U.K, Holland, Italy, France, Australia)


Transportation and communication l.jpg
Transportation and communication change in world system globalization

  • Volume, speed, cost of movement of:

    • Bulk goods

    • Luxury goods

    • Information

  • Between:

    • Spatial locations

    • Population centers

    • Organizations/states


Trade network 13 th century l.jpg
Trade network (13 change in world system globalizationth century)


Business networks l.jpg
Business networks change in world system globalization

  • Corporate interlocks

  • Market exchanges

  • Shared technology (e.g. licensing)

  • Shared niche space

  • Business groups

Evolution of the interorganization contracts network in biotech – R&D and VC links for 1989 – 1999 (Powell, White, Koput and Owen-Smith forthcoming, AJS)


City systems l.jpg
City systems change in world system globalization

Settlement systems have been seen as systems that evolve toward hierarchical networks.

Networks like this may have an exponential degree distribution.


Interstate power l.jpg
Interstate power change in world system globalization

  • Treaty/alliance networks

  • Exchange of recognition

  • Bloc membership

  • Co-membership in supra-national organizations


Ii summarizing structures l.jpg
II. Summarizing structures change in world system globalization

  • Density, degree, reach

  • Centrality and power

  • Cohesion and sub-groups

  • Positions and roles


Density degree reach l.jpg
Density, degree, reach change in world system globalization

  • How much connection is there?

  • Which nodes have how much connection (social capital)?

  • Which actors are closest to, most influenced by which others?


Centrality and power l.jpg
Centrality and power change in world system globalization

  • Which actors have most ties?

  • Which actors are closest to most others?

  • Which actors are “between” others?


Cohesion and sub groups l.jpg
Cohesion and sub-groups change in world system globalization

  • Are there blocs or factions or sub-groups?

  • Which actors are connected, how tightly, to which groups?

  • What roles do actors have with respect to relations between groups?

  • Level of cohesive membership as a predictive variable

(Predictive Structural Cohesion theory)


Roles and positions l.jpg
Roles and positions change in world system globalization

Regular equivalence of positions in the 13th century main European banking/trading network

  • Can actors be classified according to which other actors they have ties to?

  • Can actors be classified according to which other kinds of actors they have ties to?

  • Actors “roles” in the structure (e.g. “core nation”)

Same scaling method as Smith and White 1992 that showed a virtually linear core-periphery structure in the contemporary world-trade system


Iii dynamics l.jpg
III. Dynamics change in world system globalization

  • Actors make relations

  • Relations condition actors

  • Micromacro links between probabilistic attachment bias and network topologies

  • Macromicro effects of network topologies on actor activities and behaviors


Iii network dynamics in the world system l.jpg
III. Network dynamics in the world system change in world system globalization

  • How and why do world systems expand, contract, and change structure?

    • Homophily

    • Exchange

    • Power-laws (degree preference)

    • Cohesion and shortcuts


Homophily l.jpg
Homophily change in world system globalization

  • Forming (or breaking) ties is not random

  • Actors may have preferences to form (or sustain) ties with “similar” others

  • The macro-result is local clustering and formation of factions


Network exchange l.jpg
Network exchange change in world system globalization

  • Ties may be formed (or dissolved) proportional to the cost/benefits to actors, and…

  • Constraints due to presence of relations and existing embedding (alternatives available to each actor)

  • Macro-result may tend to “structural holes” and extended networks


Power laws l.jpg
Power laws change in world system globalization

  • Actors with ties may use ties as social capital to accumulate further ties, and…

  • Actors with few ties may prefer to establish ties with actors with more ties

  • Both tendencies have the macro-result of exponential distributions of ties

  • Exponential networks create relatively short average path-lengths (shortcuts) unless the hub distributions are too extreme


Examples of scale independent networks and effects on alpha l.jpg
Examples of scale-independent networks and effects on alpha change in world system globalization

Proteome yeast alpha=2.4 (Amaral) hierarchical organization, reduces alpha

Greek Gods alpha=3.0 (H&J Newman) with no real organizational constraints, pure 'scale free' alpha (courtesy B. Walters)

Biotech alpha=2.0 (Powell, White, Koput, Owen-Smith) cohesive organization, reduces alpha


Cohesion and shortcuts l.jpg
Cohesion and shortcuts change in world system globalization

  • Competing tendencies toward closed and cohesive local structures and…

  • Extensive short-distance structures…

  • Lead to “mixed” models, such as…


Ring cohesion l.jpg
Ring Cohesion change in world system globalization

  • Cohesion is an important predictor of network attachment, demonstrated in schools (AdHealth), industry (e.g. biotech), kinship, social class, and other fields and organizations. Ring cohesion theory focuses on preferential attachment-to-cohesion mechanisms and how they are constructed.

  • Ring cohesion analysis has now been completed for biotech and numerous kinship examples (work underway with Wehbe, Houseman) and is being done on the 13th C. world-system networks


Further applications of ring cohesion l.jpg
Further applications of ring cohesion change in world system globalization

  • Nord-Pas-de-Calais study: spatial and kin-connected dimensions of ring cohesion (joint scaling model; with Hervé Le Bras)

  • Networks of the previous world-system (13th century trade and monetary linkages; with Peter Spufford)

  • Networks of the first world-system (Jemdet Nasr; Henry Wright)


Iv conclusions l.jpg
IV. Conclusions change in world system globalization

  • How networks are formed (probabilistic biases), how multiple networks and levels interlock, what is transmitted has powerful predictions,

  • Including micro-macro (predictive linkages) with more global structural and dynamical properties of networks and their structural transformations

  • With macromicro feedback for quantitative changes and qualitative transformations of systemic properties at the level of local interaction