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KNR 352: Quantitative Analysis in Biomechanics. Dr. Steve McCaw 227B 438-3804 www.castonline.ilstu.edu/mccaw. Topics. Basic Operations required Dealing with vectors Review from 282 (Basic Biomechanics) Kinematics Calculations of basic quantities Displacement, velocity, acceleration

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Knr 352 quantitative analysis in biomechanics l.jpg

KNR 352: Quantitative Analysis in Biomechanics

Dr. Steve McCaw

227B

438-3804

www.castonline.ilstu.edu/mccaw


Topics l.jpg
Topics

  • Basic Operations required

    • Dealing with vectors

    • Review from 282 (Basic Biomechanics)

  • Kinematics

    • Calculations of basic quantities

      • Displacement, velocity, acceleration

  • Kinetics

    • Calculations

      • GRF, CofP, JMF

  • Energetics

    • Calculations

      • Power, Work


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Performance

Injury


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Performance

Injury

TASK


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Task Factors

  • Basic Skill

    • Walking

    • Jumping

      • Take off & Landing

    • Running

      • Take off & Landing

    • What joint actions are occurring?

    • What muscles are active?

    • What are the risks?


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Task Factors

  • Basic Skill

  • Complex Task

    • Throw

    • Assembly Task

    • Curl up

    • Hitting a baseball

    • What joint actions are occurring?

    • What muscles are active?

    • What are the risks?


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Performance

Injury

TASK

Environment


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Environmental Factors

  • Weather/field/floor conditions

    • Friction====>stability, tissue loads


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Environmental Factors

  • Weather/field/floor conditions

  • Gravity

    • space travel & platforms


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Environmental Factors

  • Weather/field/floor conditions

  • Gravity

  • Open/closed task

    • dynamic vs. static environment


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Environmental Factors

  • Weather/field/floor conditions

  • Gravity

  • Open/closed task

  • Rules on the game/of the job

    • # of players

    • field dimensions

      • workplace layout

    • temporal constraints


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Performance

Injury

TASK

Individual

Environment


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Individual Factors

  • Cognitive ability


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Individual Factors

  • Cognitive ability

  • Anthropometrics


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Individual Factors

  • Cognitive ability

  • Anthropometrics

  • Psychological state


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Individual Factors

  • Cognitive ability

  • Anthropometrics

  • Psychological state

  • Fitness & Health

  • Skill level


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Performance

Injury

TASK

Individual

Environment


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Performance

Injury

TASK

Individual

Environment


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Performance

Injury

TASK

Individual

Environment

Modulated by force: described by mechanics


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Every structure that participates in the movement of the body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

Hamilton & Luttgens, Kinesiology: Scientific basis of Human Motion, 10th edition.


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Mechanics body does so according to physical and physiological principles.influence of force on bodies

  • Biomechanics: force on biological organisms

    • biomechanics of fluids

      • circulation (lung, blood, artery)


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Mechanics body does so according to physical and physiological principles.influence of force on bodies

  • Biomechanics: force on biological organisms

    • biomechanics of fluids

    • biomechanics of deformable solids

      • bones, ligaments, tendons


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Mechanics body does so according to physical and physiological principles.influence of force on bodies

  • Biomechanics: force on biological organisms

    • biomechanics of fluids

    • biomechanics of deformable solids

    • biomechanics of rigid bodies

      • body as “rigid links” at “frictionless hinges”


Mechanics l.jpg

Kinematics body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

description of pattern of motion

how far

how fast

how consistent

Kinetics

Mechanics


Mechanics26 l.jpg

Kinematics body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

description of pattern of motion

how far

how fast

how consistent

temporal aspects

durations

sequencing

Kinetics

Mechanics


Mechanics27 l.jpg

Kinematics body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

description of pattern of motion

how far

how fast

how consistent

temporal aspects

durations

sequencing

Kinetics

study of forces that cause motion

Mechanics


Mechanics28 l.jpg

Kinematics body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

description of pattern of motion

how far

how fast

how consistent

temporal aspects

durations

sequencing

Kinetics

study of forces that cause motion

magnitude

direction

line of action

point of application

Mechanics


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F = m a body does so according to physical and physiological principles.


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F = m a body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

Force CAUSES acceleration


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F = m a body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

Force CAUSES acceleration

Force CAUSES injury


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Fundamental Concepts for body does so according to physical and physiological principles.Biomechanical Analysis

  • Units of Measure: ISU (International system of Units, ie the Metric System)


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Fundamental Concepts for body does so according to physical and physiological principles.Biomechanical Analysis

  • Units of Measure: ISU (International system of Units, ie the Metric System)

  • Base Units

    • length: meter (m)

    • mass: gram (g)

    • time: second (s)


Motion l.jpg
Motion body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

  • Change in position of a body with respect to time


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Motion body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

  • Change in position of a body with respect to time

    • quantify POSITION

      • location in 3D space: P

        • three reference axes: X, Y, Z

          • Cartesian system: axes at 90o (orthogonal)


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ISB Convention: 2D body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

Y

Progression

X

0,0


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ISB Convention: 3D body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

Vertical

Y

Medio-Lateral

Z

Anterior-Posterior

X

0,0,0


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Scalar quantity body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

described by magnitude alone

mass

volume

distance

speed

Vector quantity

requires description of magnitude and direction

force

momentum

impulse

displacement

velocity

acceleration

Scalars and Vectors


Parallelogram law for addition of vectors l.jpg
Parallelogram Law for body does so according to physical and physiological principles.Addition of Vectors

  • Sum of two vectors (resultant, R) equals the diagonal of the parallelogram with sides equal to the two vectors.

    • Draw on board, tail to tail

    • Triangle Rule: tip to tail

      • commutative: R = A + B = B + A

    • Polygon Rule: extends to 3 or more vectors


Review basic trigonometry l.jpg
Review: Basic Trigonometry body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

  • Right angle Triangle

    • naming conventions

  • Pythagorean Theorem

  • Trig functions

    • Sine, Cosine, Tangent (slope)

  • Inverse Tangent


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Coordinate Systems body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

  • Rectangular or Cartesian Coordinate System

    • P = Px + Py

  • Polar coordinate system

    • P = r and Ө

  • Polar to rectangular

    • (use SOH and CAH)

  • Rectangular to Polar

    • use Pythagorean Thereom and arctan

Examples: P to R: 270 N @ 23 degrees R to P: Fv= 1300 N & FA/P = 100 N


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Adding Force (vectors) by Summing Components body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

  • Force: magnitude & direction need to be calculated


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Adding Force (vectors) by Summing Components body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

  • Force 1 = 50 N at -45 degrees

  • Force 2 = 30 N at 90 degrees

Solve for Resultant


Adding force vectors by summing components44 l.jpg
Adding Force (vectors) by Summing Components body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

  • Force 1 = 50 N at -45 degrees

  • Force 2 = 30 N at 90 degrees

  • Force 3 = 75 N at 28 degrees

  • Force 4 = 15 N horizontal & 13 N vertical

Solve for Resultant


New useful information l.jpg
New & Useful Information body does so according to physical and physiological principles.

Radian – the angle created by the arc on a circle with the length of the radius of the circle (~ 57.3 degrees)

Arc length = 1 radius


Calculate the resultant force from coracobrachialis and pectoralis major l.jpg
Calculate the resultant force from Coracobrachialis and Pectoralis Major

Coracobrachialis = 1200 N, PM = 1700 N


Effect of tension development on angle of muscle insertion and muscle activation level l.jpg
Effect of tension development on angle of muscle insertion and muscle activation level.

Given:

Muscle force = 90 N /cm2 x-sectional area

X-sectional area = 4 cm2

Muscle Ө relaxed = 50°

Muscle Өactive = 85°Required: 150 N force along tendon

Calculate: Percentage of max muscle force developed to produce the 150 N of force.


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Additional Problems and muscle activation level.

Available from web


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Motion and muscle activation level.

  • Change in position of a body with respect to time

    • quantify POSITION

    • quantify TIME

Motion-capture systems


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Motion Capture and muscle activation level.

  • Pre 1985: Film

    • RedLake Locam: 500 fps

    • ~ $125 roll (film + developing)

    • Working in the “dark”

      • Record

      • Send for processing

      • Hope it all turns out ok.

        • All black, badly focused, missed critical event

      • Manual Digitizing


Motion capture51 l.jpg
Motion Capture and muscle activation level.

  • Pre 1985: Film

  • Post 1985: High speed video

    • Immediate feedback

    • Easy to adjust

    • Reduced cost (once system paid for)

    • Auto Digitizing Available


Example video l.jpg
Example Video and muscle activation level.


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Example Video and muscle activation level.

Reflective Markers


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Motion Capture and muscle activation level.

  • Pre 1985: Film

  • Post 1985: High speed video

  • Post 1990: Active Marker Systems

    • No visible recording of performer

    • Tracks x,y coordinates of markers only

    • FAST.

    • $$$$


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Principles of Recording and muscle activation level.

  • Maximize image size within field of view.

    Field of view: rectangular area recorded

    Field Height

    Field Width

    Field Depth


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Photographic Dimensions and muscle activation level.


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Principles of Recording and muscle activation level.

  • Maximize image size within field of view. Optimize calibrated volume.

    Volume: Height x Width x Depth.


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Principles of Recording and muscle activation level.

  • Optimize calibrated volume

  • Ensure always within field of view


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Principles of Recording and muscle activation level.

  • Optimize calibrated volume

  • Ensure always within field of view Stay within calibrated volume

    • Landing

    • Run

    • Jump


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Principles of Recording and muscle activation level.

  • Optimize calibrated volume

  • Stay within calibrated volume

  • Ensure adequate pre and post recording

    Torry’s 16 mm thesis recording

    • Landing: air time, post max knee (max extension)

    • Lifting (bench & squat): before descent, post ascent

Video Tapes are Cheap


Principles of recording61 l.jpg
Principles of Recording and muscle activation level.

  • Optimize calibrated volume

  • Stay within calibrated volume

  • Ensure adequate pre and post recording

    Torry’s 16 mm thesis recording Capture adequate pre-initial and post-final activity

    • Landing: air time, post max knee (max extension)

    • Lifting (bench & squat): before descent, post ascent

Server space is Cheap


Principles of recording62 l.jpg
Principles of Recording and muscle activation level.

  • Optimize calibrated volume

  • Stay within calibrated volume

  • Ensure adequate pre and post recording Capture adequate pre-initial and post-final activity

    Important for video processing

    • Smoothing process


Principles of recording63 l.jpg
Principles of Recording and muscle activation level.

  • Optimize calibrated volume

  • Stay within calibrated volume

  • Capture adequate pre-initial and post-final activity

  • Use as slow a video speed as feasible

    • Standard video: 30 frames per second

    • High speed: 60, 1202000 fps

      Lo speed = Improved quality of recording

      Hi speed = capture more frames of activity


Principles of recording64 l.jpg
Principles of Recording and muscle activation level.

  • Optimize calibrated volume

  • Stay within calibrated volume

  • Capture adequate pre-initial and post-final activity

  • Use as slow a video speed as feasible Set at 200 fps.

    Ensure an even multiple of EMG or GRF (??)


Principles of recording65 l.jpg
Principles of Recording and muscle activation level.

  • Optimize calibrated volume

  • Stay within calibrated volume

  • Capture adequate pre-initial and post-final activity

  • Set at 200 fps.

  • Make shutter speed as short as possible

    Too short: not enough light

    Too long: “comets” rather than round markers


Principles of recording66 l.jpg
Principles of Recording and muscle activation level.

  • Optimize calibrated volume

  • Stay within calibrated volume

  • Capture adequate pre-initial and post-final activity

  • Set at 200 fps.

  • Make shutter speed as short as possible

    Too short: not enough light

    Too long: “comets” rather than round markers


Principles of recording67 l.jpg
Principles of Recording and muscle activation level.

  • Optimize calibrated volume

  • Stay within calibrated volume

  • Capture adequate pre-initial and post-final activity

  • Set at 200 fps.

  • Make shutter speed as short as possible

  • Depth of field

    • Is 2D an appropriate assumption?

    • ISU Lab: record 3D even if 2D is of interest


Principles of recording68 l.jpg
Principles of Recording and muscle activation level.

  • Optimize calibrated volume

  • Stay within calibrated volume

  • Capture adequate pre-initial and post-final activity

  • Set at 200 fps.

  • Make shutter speed as short as possible

  • Depth of field

    • Is 2D an appropriate assumption?

    • ISU Lab: record 3D even if 2D is of interest


Principles of recording69 l.jpg
Principles of Recording and muscle activation level.

  • Optimize calibrated volume

  • Stay within calibrated volume

  • Capture adequate pre-initial and post-final activity

  • Set at 200 fps.

Pilot Test


Calibration l.jpg
Calibration and muscle activation level.

  • Real Life recorded on Video

  • Scale video dimensions to real life

    • 2D: set up camera, record known length in plane of action

      • Perpendicular alignment is critical

      • Scaling factor

        • Digitize recording of ruler

        • Sf = actual length (m) / digitized length (arbitrary units)


Calibration71 l.jpg
Calibration and muscle activation level.

  • Real Life recorded on Video

  • Scale video dimensions to real life

    • 2D: set up camera, record known length in plane of action

    • 3D: set up cameras, record calibration Wand and calibration triangle on Force Platform.


Marker selection l.jpg
Marker Selection and muscle activation level.

  • Where to put the reflective markers?

    • What are you measuring?

      • Segments & joints of interest

        • Lower Body?

        • Upper Body?

        • Trunk?

Stick figure of landing in sagittal plane


Marker selection73 l.jpg
Marker Selection and muscle activation level.

  • Where to put the reflective markers?

    • What are you measuring?

      • Segments & joints of interest

        • Lower Body?

        • Upper Body?

        • Trunk?

Stick figure of landing in sagittal plane


Marker selection74 l.jpg
Marker Selection and muscle activation level.

  • Where to put the reflective markers?

    • What are you looking at?

    • Landmarks defining segment endpoints


Marker selection75 l.jpg
Marker Selection and muscle activation level.

  • Where to put the reflective markers?

    • What are you looking at?

    • Landmarks defining segment endpoints

  • ISU Lab

  • All landings on force platform

  • Spatially synchronized within calibration grid

  • No need for markers on floor


Motion76 l.jpg
Motion and muscle activation level.

  • Change in position of a body with respect to time

    • quantify POSITION

    • quantify TIME

Linear Motion: translation

rectilinear

curvilnear


Motion77 l.jpg
Motion and muscle activation level.

  • Change in position of a body with respect to time

    • quantify POSITION

    • quantify TIME

Linear Motion: translation

rectilinear: straight line

curvilnear: curved line (parabolic)


Motion78 l.jpg
Motion and muscle activation level.

  • Change in position of a body with respect to time

    • quantify POSITION

    • quantify TIME

Linear Motion

Angular Motion: rotation


Motion79 l.jpg
Motion and muscle activation level.

  • Change in position of a body with respect to time

    • quantify POSITION

    • quantify TIME

Linear Motion

Angular Motion

General motion


Motion80 l.jpg
Motion and muscle activation level.

  • Change in position of a body with respect to time

    • quantify POSITION: from motion tracker

    • quantify TIME  ?

Linear Motion

Angular Motion

General motion


Time in video analysis l.jpg
Time in Video Analysis and muscle activation level.

  • 200 images per second

  • 1 second / 200 frames = 0.005 seconds between frames


Motion82 l.jpg
Motion and muscle activation level.

  • Position: location in space

    • Displacement (distance)

      • change of position


Motion83 l.jpg
Motion and muscle activation level.

  • Position: location in space

    • Displacement (distance)

      • change of position

    • Velocity (speed)

      • change of position with respect to time

        • This is motion


Motion84 l.jpg
Motion and muscle activation level.

  • Position: location in space

    • Displacement (distance)

      • change of position

    • Velocity (speed)

      • change of position with respect to time

        • This is motion

    • Acceleration

      • change of velocity = change of motion


Force l.jpg
Force and muscle activation level.

  • Push or pull exerted by one body on another body that causes or tends to cause a change in motion of each body


Force86 l.jpg
Force and muscle activation level.

  • Push or pull exerted by one body on another body that causes or tends to cause a change in motion of each body

  • a derived unit in mechanics

    • body: mass

    • change in motion: acceleration

      • new location in space and time

1 newton = 1 N = 1 kg • m / s / s


Slide87 l.jpg
Mass and muscle activation level.

  • Quantifies linear inertia

    • resistance of a body to a change in linear motion

  • Anthropometry

    • measure of body dimensions

      • ht, wt, girth, segment length, density

    • Body Segment Parameters

      • mass, center of mass (gravity), radius of gyration