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Introduction to endodontics, pathohistological and clinical classification of pulpal diseases, indication and contraindication of endodontic treatment. 4.Year - Dental Medicine. Pulp normality. histologic normality clinical normality The CLINICALLY NORMAL PULP

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4 year dental medicine

Introduction to endodontics,pathohistological and clinical classification of pulpal diseases, indication and contraindication of endodontic treatment

4.Year - Dental Medicine

Pulp normality
Pulp normality

  • histologic normality

  • clinical normality


  • vital to testing procedures

  • responcive to a variety of excitations

  • free of spontaneous symptoms !!!

  • The MICROSCOPICALLY NORMAL PULP demonstrates only those histologic features that are compatible with its age.

    It is free of inflammatory change of any type!!!

Dental pulp
Dental pulp

DP : dental pulpOB : odontoblastD : dentinPD : predentinTF : Tom's fiber

The response of the pulp
The response of the pulp

  • The response of the pulp to injury or irritants occcur very soon, when the stimuly are mild

  • Pulpodentonal reactions occurs when chemical, mechanical, bacterial irritants attack the odontoblasts, namely Tome´s fibers, transmit a excitation to the pulp

  • The response of the pulp depends on the character and intensity of stimuly

Histopathologic classification of pulpal diseases

A. Regresive changes

B. Inflammatory changes

Pulpal hyperemy

Acute pulpitis

Chronic pulpitis

C. Necrosis of the pulp

D. Gangraena of the pulp

Acute pulpitis

serose partial


purulent partial


Chronic pulpitis


a tergo

granulomatosa interna

aperta ulcerosa

aperta hypertrophica

Histopathologic classificationof pulpal diseases

A regresive changes
A. Regresive changes

  • vacuolar degeneration of odontoblasts

  • hyalinic degeneration of the pulp

  • lipidic degeneration of the pulp

  • reticular atrophy

  • pathological calcification

Regresive changes v acuolar degeneration of odontoblasts
Regresive changes:Vacuolar degeneration of odontoblasts

  • Odontoblasts react very quickly for many stimulies.

  • We can often find parts with vacuolization of odontoblasts.

  • This change can be result of pathologic damage of the pulp

  • It is the result of intracellular or extracellular break - down of cells metabolism

A regresive changes hyalinic degeneration of the pulp
A. Regresive changes:Hyalinic degeneration of the pulp

  • In this regresiva change, we can find an albumenic substances in the pulp

  • This type of degeneratin is typical in teeth:

  • of old people

  • with chronic inflammation

Regresive changes lipidic degeneration of the pulp reticular atrophy
Regresive changes:Lipidic degeneration of the pulpReticular atrophy


  • We can find it in pulp with chronic inflammation

  • It is break - down of metabolism, and the result is

    the lipids in cells


  • It is regresive change present in pulp of old people

  • Lost odontoblasts and pulpal cells are compensated by tissue

A regresive changes pathological calcification
A. Regresive changes:Pathological calcification

  • Normal pulp doesn´t contain hard calcified substances

  • PULPAL DENTICUL - is hard, mineralisated substance located in the pulpal tissue

  • Usually in pulp we can find 1 - 12 denticuls

  • Sometimes they are small microscopic, sometimes biggist and they can fill pulp chamber or root canal, or obliterate it totally.

Clinical classification of pulpal diseases
Clinical classificationof pulpal diseases


without clinical symptoms


pulp with clinical symptoms, in which we can preserve the vitality

of the pulp by treatment


pulp with clinical symptoms, in which we cannot preserve the vitality

of the pulp by treatment


pulp with lost vitality, necrotic, gangrenous

Symptoms typical for reversible process
Symptoms typical forreversible process

  • pain present only for impulse, never spontaneous

  • patient can localize the pain

  • pain is of short duration,

  • analgetics stop the pain

  • Vitality test: short sensation, it leaves immediately

  • pain for percussion is never present

  • RTG: caries, filling next to the pulp

    tercial dentine is present

    periapical finding is negative

Symptoms typical for irreversible process
Symptoms typical forirreversible process

  • spontaneous pain through day, intervals without pain are shorter,

    intervals with pain start to be longer

  • pain through night is present

  • pain is neuralgiformic

  • analgetics do not stop the pain

  • Vitality test: attack of neuralgiformic painwhich leaves very slowly

    pulzating pain

  • patient cannot localize the tooth, sometimes even the jaw

  • pain for percussion is present, periapex is inflammed

  • RTG: caries, filling close to the pulp, or in pulp

    tercial dentine is not present

Right diagnosis
Right diagnosis

How do the right diagnosis?

  • anamnesis

  • symptomatology

  • clinical examinations

  • knowlwdges of pathology of the pulp

  • clinical experiences

  • From all this points we make the clinical dg.:


Reversible or irreversible pulpal disease
Reversible or irreversible pulpal disease?

  • Reversible form of pulp inflammation turns into irreversible form of pulp inflammation

    - to pulpitis.

    In clinical practice this moment play the key role in decision of the TREATMENT CHOICE -

  • to treat hyperemia without pulpotomy or extirpation and preserve the pulp vitality or

  • to treat pulpitis as irreversible inflammation with endodontic treatment.

Reversible or irreversible pulpal disease1
Reversible or irreversible pulpal disease?

  • The appropriate decision is not easy because the histologic changes are frequently not in correlation with

    the clinical symptoms.

  • for appropriate diagnosis we have clinical symptoms

Reversible or irreversible pulpal disease2
Reversible or irreversible pulpal disease?


  • Hyperemy

  • Acute pulpitis - acute serous partial pulpitis


    - acute serous total pulpitis

    - acute purulent partial pulpitis

    - acute purulent total pulpitis

  • Chronic pulpitis






Endodontic treatment
Endodontic treatment

  • What is endodontics?

  • Endodontics is the area of dentistry concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the dental pulp

  • Years ago, such teeth with diseased or injured pulps were extracted. Today endodontic treatment offers a way for a safe and effective means of saving the teeth.

Considerations for endodontic therapy
Considerations for endodontic therapy

1. Is the tooth needed or important? Does it have an opponent? Could it some day serve as an abutment for prosthesis?

2. Is the tooth salvageable, or is it so badly destroyed that it cannot be restored?

3. Is the entire dentition so completely broken down that it would be virtually impossible to restore?

4. Is the tooth serving esthetically, or would the patient be better served by its extraction and a more cosmetic replacement?

5. Is the tooth so severely involved periodontally that it would be lost soon for this reason?

6. Is the practitioner capable of performing the needed endodontic procedures?

Indications for endodontic therapy
Indications for endodontic therapy

  • Presence of irreversible pulpal disease

  • Prophylactic pulpal therapy which may be needed prior to other treatment procedures (restorative dentistry, prosthodontics & periodontics)

Contraindications for endodontic therapy
Contraindications forendodontic therapy

The objections are listed according to:

  • status of the patient

  • dental reasons

  • local reasons

  • Status of the patient:

  • Age - past middle life

  • Health of the patient - DM, leukemia, terminal cancer, radiation

    necrosis, tuberculosis, syphilis ...

  • Too many treated pulpless teeth

Contraindications for endodontic therapy1
Contraindications for endodontic therapy

  • Dental reasons:

  • Pulpless teeth are not salvageable if there are associated periapical and periodontal lesions

  • Local reasons:

  • the periapical lesion is an apical cyst

  • the tooth is badly broken down by caries

  • the involved tooth is badly fractured

  • the involved tooth has a mechanical root perforation

  • the involved tooth has perforating internal or external root resorption

  • the involved tooth is wholly or partially luxated

Contraindications for endodontic therapy2
Contraindications for endodontic therapy

  • Severe, untreatable periodontal disease

  • Condition of remaining teeth

  • Non-restorable teeth

  • Extensive resorption

  • Vertical root fractures

  • Malpositioning of teeth

  • Limited accessibility

  • Non-strategic tooth

  • Aberrant root morphology

  • Unfavorable crown:root ratio

  • Predicatable failures

  • Proximity to vital structures

Thank you

for attention !