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Objectives. Explain the rise of Napoleon after Robespierre. Evaluate the importance of Napoleon’s reforms. Napoleon Forges an Empire. Chapter 23 Section 3. Napoleon’s Rise to Power. Very short, but casts a long shadow Became a great military genius In four years, from 1795-1799

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  • Explain the rise of Napoleon after Robespierre.
  • Evaluate the importance of Napoleon’s reforms.
napoleon forges an empire

Napoleon Forges an Empire

Chapter 23 Section 3

napoleon s rise to power
Napoleon’s Rise to Power
  • Very short, but casts a long shadow
    • Became a great military genius
  • In four years, from 1795-1799
    • From officer in the army
    • Became a great military genius
    • To Emperor of France
napoleon seizes power
Napoleon Seizes Power
  • Hero: October 1795
    • Saved the National Convention
      • Royalist rebels attacked the Convention.
    • 1796 – led army against Austria
      • Many victories
      • Becomes most famous general in all of France.
napoleon seizes power1
Napoleon Seizes Power
  • Coup d'état: 1799
    • Directory lost control and dissolved
    • Group of 3 consuls created
      • Napoleon – 1st consul
  • Plebiscite
    • Vote of the people
    • Approve new constitution
    • Gave real power to Napoleon
napoleon restores order
Economic –

Balanced the budget

Better tax collection system

restored bread prices

Government –

Dismissed corrupt officials

Replaced with trained officials

Based on merit

Religious -

Recognized and supported the church

Church out of Government affairs

Napoleon Restores Order
napoleon restores order napoleonic code
Napoleon Restores Order: Napoleonic Code
  • Legal-
    • Napoleonic Code
      • One Code of laws for France
        • everyone was equal in the eyes of the law
      • Purpose was to reform legal code to reflect the French Revolution
      • Actually limited liberty
        • Order over rights
the influence of the napoleonic code
The Influence of the Napoleonic Code

Wherever it was implemented [in the conquered territories], the Code Napoleon swept away feudal property relations.

becoming emperor
Becoming Emperor
  • Made himself “Consul for Life”
  • Made himself Emperor at the Cathedral of Norte Dame
napoleon creates an empire the americas
Napoleon creates an Empire: The Americas
  • Haiti
    • They demanded the same privileges of Fr
    • Napoleon wanted to take back the colony
      • Restore the industry there
      • Expedition failed
  • Napoleon cut his losses
    • Offered to sell the Louisiana Territory
      • Gain $$$
      • Punish the British

Haitian Independence, 1792-1804

Toussaint L’Ouverture

louisiana purchase 1803 doubled the size of the united states
Louisiana Purchase, 1803doubled the size of the United States

$15,000,000/828,800 square miles/ all or part of 14 U.S. states & 2 Canadian provinces.

napoleon creates an empire europe
Napoleon creates an Empire:Europe
  • Already controlled Netherlands, parts of It. & Switz.
  • France vs. Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia
    • France wins, and wins BIG
    • Signed treaties with Austria, Russia, & Prussia
    • Only one left: Britain
  • Largest Empire since Rome
  • Explain the fall of Napoleon.
  • Evaluate the 3 mistakes Napoleon made, for his demise.
napoleon s empire collapses

Napoleon’s Empire Collapses

Chapter 23 Section 4

napoleon s loss
Napoleon’s Loss
  • Battle of Trafalgar
    • Naval defeat
    • British commander split the French fleet
  • Two major results
    • British navy: best for 100 years
    • Napoleon gave up on invading UK
    • Looked for another way to get UK
      • Tries blockade of UK
  • This would lead to his downfall



the french empire
The French Empire
  • Huge but unstable
  • Maintained it for only 5 years
  • Quickly fell to pieces
    • Caused by Napoleon’s actions
      • The Continental System
      • Peninsular War
      • Invasion of Russia
the continental system
The Continental System
  • GOAL Isolate Britain and promote Napoleon’s mastery over Europe.
  • Milan Decree (1807)
    • Ships from Britain would be seized (taken).
      • Blockade against Britain backfires
        • Prevent trade between Britain & European countries
      • Supposed to make Europe more self-sufficient & destroy Britain’s industry
        • Weakened France instead

Peninsular Campaign: 1807-1810



France 

 Spain & Portugal

  • Portugal did not comply with the Continental System.
  • France wanted Spain’s support to invade Portugal.
  • Spain refused = Napoleon invades Spain
      • Guerilla warfare in Spain = loss of many of Napoleon’s best troops.
        • Citizens ambushed Napoleon’s army
the big blunder russia
The “Big Blunder” -- Russia
  • July, Napoleon led his army of 614,000 men across central Europe into Russia.
    • The Russians avoided a direct confrontation.
    • Retreated to Moscow, drawing the French into the interior of Russia
      • Hoped that it’s size and the weather would act as “support” for the Russian cause.
      • “Scorched-Earth policy”
        • Burned fields, slaughtered livestock
        • Russian nobles abandoned their estates leaving the French to operate far from their supply bases.
napoleon at moscow
Napoleon at Moscow

Moscow On Fire!

  • September, 1812  Napoleon reached Moscow, but the city had been abandoned.
  • The Russians had set fire to the city.
napoleon s defeat
Coalition took advantage of weakness

Defeated Napoleon

Battle of Leipzig

Napoleon surrendered

Exiled on Elba

He escaped

Napoleon’s Defeat
Louis XVIII is king
    • Not a smooth transition:
      • economic depression, fear, émigrés looked for revenge
      • Unpopular
    • 1815, Napoleon back 2 France = Louis flees.
    • The Hundred Days

Battle of Waterloo - loses

      • British and Prussian armies crush the French
      • Napoleon is again forced to exile - St. Helena
      • Died in 1821
  • After Napoleon
    • France brings BACK King Louis XVIII & Limited Monarchy

Napoleon en-route to Final Exile -St. Helena

accomplishments of napoleon
Accomplishments of Napoleon
  • Napoleonic Code
  • Central State with Constitution
  • Elections with expanded suffrage
  • Increased access to property
  • Access to education
  • Created feelings of nationalism
  • Abolition of HRE lead to the creation of Germany
the congress of vienna
The Congress of Vienna

Congress of Vienna

    • Series of meetings in Vienna
    • Very Conservative
      • Wanted things to stay the same
    • Participants:
      • Austria, Russia, Britain, France
  • Main Goal:
    • create lasting peace and stability in Europe
congress of vienna
Congress of Vienna
  • Prevent Future aggression (Balance of Power)
    • Made small countries stronger
    • Prevents France from trying to take them over
  • Balance of Power:
    • Weakened France: surrounded France with strong countries
    • Not powerless
  • Restoring Monarchs:
    • wanted monarchies back
    • Louis XVIII back in power in France
    • Thought this would prevent turmoil