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Unit 1 Making a Living in the Wild
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  1. Unit 1 Making a Living in the Wild Chapter 9 Part 1 Communication

  2. Communication • Sender sends signal to receiver • Receiver responds in some way • Leads to an advantage to sender • Can also be advantage to receiver w/o intention

  3. Channels of communication • Sound • Visual • Touch • Smell • Electric fields • Substrate vibration

  4. Sound • Calls- short • Songs- long • Language- most complex • Good: radiates in all directions at once, can easily be turned on/off • Bad: takes E, heard by pred • Used to notify of proximate pred

  5. Visual messages • Good: easily identified, little error, quickly transmitted, directional, contains lots of info • Bad: not over long distances, easily blocked, need light • Light: can create light as a signal • Some can change color quickly

  6. Touch messages • Must be in close contact • Communicates dominance or submission • Giving of a food message • Initiate transport message

  7. Chemical message • Chemical pathways- most universal form of communication • Pheromones • Cheap to produce, less risky to attract attention, last long time, good in day or night, not good after inclement weather

  8. Releasers vs. primers • Chemical releasers affect behavior of another individual • Primers directly affect other individual’s physiology • Bruce effect-tendency for female rodents to terminate their pregnancies following exposure to the scent of an unfamiliar male

  9. Fxns of communication: 2 theories of why it evolved • 1. Share info about what the animal will do next • 2. To manipulate other’s behaviors b/c advantageous to themselves

  10. Comm is specific to a group • Social releasers- elicit distinctive social behaviors of the same species • Ritualization- signals become part of the social communication

  11. Recognition fxns- be able to recognize their own species, group, family, mated pairs, offspring • Primates have distinct facial characteristics • Voices

  12. Group coordination • Whales live in groups called pods • Each group has own dialect • Young learn by imitating adults • Alarm- warns others of danger by sound or chemical • Hunting- more efficient • Foraging- can show location to others