Parts of speech & L exical C ategories . Lec . 2. Parts of Speech . Syntactic categories or parts of speech are the groups of words that let us state rules and constraints about the form of sentences. Nouns (N) Verbs (V.) Adjectives (Adj.) Adverbs (Adv.).
word describing a person, place, or thing
Word describing an action, occurrence or state of being
Word that expresses quality, quantity or extent
Word that expresses manner, quality, place, time, degree, number, cause, opposition, affirmation or denial
The yinkishdripnerblorkedquastofically into the nidin with the pidibs.
In English, nouns often end in derivational endings, such as (-ment), (-ness), (-ity), (-ion), (-ation), (-ist), (-ant), (-ee), (-hood), (-aire), etc.
Nouns in English don’t show much inflection, but when pluralized can take suffixes such as (-s), (-es), (-en), (-ren), etc.
Nouns often appear after determiners such as the, these, those, and can appear after adjectives . Nouns can also follow prepositions. And all these conditions can happen together. E.g. In the big gymnasium
e.g. no apples were eaten
Verbs often end in derivational endings, such as (-ate) and (-ize/-ise)
Past tense (-t / -ed)
Present tense 3rd person singular (-s)
Verbs can follow auxiliaries & modals, such as (will, have, having, had, has, am, be, been, being, is, are, were, was, would, can, could, shall, should) the typical infinitive (to)
Verbs follow subjects, and can follow adverbs such as (often)& (frequently).
Verbs can be negated with (not)
Adjectives often end in derivational endings such as (-ing), (-ive), (-able), (-al), (-ate), (-ish), (-some), (i-an), (-ful), (-less), & (-ly)
Adjectives can be inflected into a comparative form using (-er), (alternately they follow the word more)
They can also be inflected into their superlative form using (-est)
Adjectives are typically negated using the prefixes (-un, -in, im)
Adjectives can appear between determiners, such as (the, a, an, these, those, etc. & nouns (the big peanut)
They also can follow the auxiliary (am, is, are, was, were, be, been, being)
Adjectives can be modified by the adverb (very)
Adjectives can also appear in (as…..as…...) constructions
Many adverbs end in (-ly)
Adverbs generally do not take inflectional affixes.
However, on rare occasions they can be used comparatively & follow the word (more).
e.g. she went more quickly than he did
Adverbs typically do not take the prefix (-un) unless the adjective they are derived from does first
e.g. unhelpfully (unhelpful)
The syntactic distribution of adverbs is most easily described by stating where they can’t appear.
Adverbs can’t appear between a determiner & a noun
e.g. * the quickly fox
or after the verb (is) and it’s variants
They can really appear pretty much anywhere else in the sentence, although they typically appear at the beginning or end of sentences
Like adjectives, they can be modified by the adverb(very), or appear in (as…..as…...)
“If you’ll watch my feet, you will see how I do it”. She said; and lifting her skirt above her dainty ankles, glided across the floor on tiptoe, as lightly as a fawn at play. But Sidney Trove was not a graceful creature. The muscles on his lithe form, developed in the school of work or in feats of strength at which he had met no equal, were untrained in all graceful trickery. He loved dancing and music and everything that increased the beauty and delight of life, but they filled him with a deep regret of his ignorance.