Parts of Speech A Review
I. The Parts of Speech • Nouns: names a person, place, thing, or idea • Verbs: shows action or a state of being • Adjectives: describes the qualities of a noun or pronoun • Adverbs: describes the qualities of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb • Pronouns: words that take the place of a noun. • Prepositions: show the relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence • Interjections: a word or phrase that expresses strong emotion • Conjunctions: a word that connects words of groups of words • Verbals: words made from verbs that function as another part of speech
Yowza, Umberto ate nearly forty tacos at lunch! Interjection Noun Verb Adverb Adjective Noun Preposition Noun After lunch, Umberto felt very sleepy and took a nap in the library. Preposition Noun Noun Verb Adverb Adjective Conjunction Verb Adjective Noun Preposition Adjective Noun Hugo happily took a large woman on a date to McDonalds for a Happymeal. Noun Adverb Verb Adjective Adjective Noun Preposition Adjective Noun Preposition Noun Preposition Adjective Noun She ate nearly sixty nuggets and Hugo carried her home. Pronoun Verb Adverb Adjective Noun Conjunction Noun Verb Pronoun Noun
II. Some Basics • Sentences contain a noun and a verb, and make sense on their own Sentence: The remarkably silly boy danced with his pet goat. Not A Sentence: Since the goat had eaten so much cheese. B. Verbs can be action verbs or linking verbs Action Verb: The goat ate a frightening quantity of cheese. Action Verb: He stole it from the local grocery store. Linking Verb: He felt incredibly sick. Linking Verb: He was a very naughty goat.
III. Nouns • Nouns can be the subject of a sentence • The subject tells what or who the sentence is about. • Appears before the verb in a sentence. Paco ate over two dozen Doritos Locos Tacos. Afterwards, the poor boy felt sick for days. B. Nouns can be a subject complement in a sentence. • The subject complement renames or identifies the subject • It always follows a linking verb • It can also be a pronoun Hulk Hogan was a WWE champion in the 1980’s. He later became a sellout on reality tv. The most disappointed people are fans of WWE who watched him fail.
Practice:Write Each Sentence. Underline the subject once. If there is a subject complement, underline it twice. • Chik-Fil-A offers a variety of delicious meal options. • Their best-known item is the spicy chicken sandwich. • Polynesian is the best flavor for dipping. • Their waffle fries taste absolutely delicious. Further Practice: Textbook Page 6 and 7, exercises 1 and 2
III. Nouns (cont.) C. Nouns can be used as direct objects 1. A Direct object receives the action of a verb 2. Always comes after action verb Chris Davis clobbered the baseball. John Cena elbowed the face of CM Punk D. Nouns can be used as indirect objects. 1. An indirect object tells “to whom” or “for whom” an action is done 2. Always is followed by a direct object. The fans gave John Cenaa standing ovation after the match. Mr. Bailey bought his wife a prized llama for Valentine’s Day.
III. Nouns (cont.) E. Nouns can be used as objects of prepositions. 1. Noun is last word of prepositional phrase 2. Prepositional phrase begins with a preposition The adorable llama kicked Mr. Bailey in the stomach. Remarkably, Mr. Bailey somehow flew through the windowand landed behind the dumpster. F. Nouns can be used as object complements. 1. An object complement renames a direct object. 2. Often follows verbs like “call” “consider” “chose” “elect” “make” and “name.” I consider the Orioles a good team. Students often call the Orioles the O’s. It is often difficult to make English a fun class.
PracticeIdentify whether the red word is a direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition, or object complement. • The grateful students gave Mr. Bailey a pound of waffle fries for Christmas. • Fans of the WWE call The Undertaker the Phenom. • Remarkably, the rabid llama viciously bit Napoleon on the arm. • In many horror movies, the beautiful girl finds herself the victim of grisly murder. • After being without power for many days, the student was depressed from lack of Playstation 3 gaming time. Further Practice: Textbook Pages 8 and 9, exercises 1-2
III. Nouns (cont.) G. Nouns can be used as appositives 1. An appositive is a word that follows a noun and helps identify it My home state, Maryland, is home to the Orioles. I once met the player Adam Jones. 2. An appositive phrase is an appositive and all words that modify it Paco, a very bovine boy, ate too much cheese. He slept in the back of the Home Depot, a store near his house.
III. Nouns (cont.) 3. Appositives can be restrictive or nonrestrictive a. Restrictive: information directly related to topic of the sentence; essential b. Nonrestrictive: unnecessary information; unrelated to main idea Mr. Bailey, a huge Orioles fan, teaches at Loyola Blakefield. His favorite period of the day is his class English 8. Paco has a tendency to eat far too much at Chik-Fil-A, a restaurant in Parkville. Paco is a descendent of the great president William Howard Taft.
Practice Part IWrite the sentence. Underline the appositive phrase. • The coach and mentor Buck Showalter led the team to the playoffs in 2012. • The Orioles, an often disappointing team, are finishing a succesful season. • An incredible year in Orioles history was 1997, an unforgettable year. • Star shortstop Cal Ripken led his team to a playoff run.
Practice Part 2Copy the sentence. Underline the appositive. Add commas if and where necessary. • John Cenaa seven time champion is in a feud with CM Punk. • Arby’s my favorite restaurant serves delicious roast beef sandwiches. • The actor Will Ferrelis in many hilarious movies. • My favorite character that he played was Ron Burgandyan anchorman. Further Practice: Textbook page 15 exercise 1.5 (#’s 44-48).
Final Practice With NounsDecide what Each Noun Is Functioning AS In A Sentence • Umberto has studied jazz flute for 10 years. • Many women give Umberto their love. • Umberto, a shy man, usually just runs away from them. subject subject complement direct object indirect object object of a preposition object complement appositive.
Final Practice With NounsDecide what Each Noun Is Functioning AS In A Sentence • Everyone declared the field trip an enjoyable experience. • Well, except for Humbert, who was kicked in the stomach by a rabid llama. • Humbert was trying to give the llama a bag of Cheetos. subject subject complement direct object indirect object object of a preposition object complement appositive.
Final Practice With NounsDecide what Each Noun Is Functioning AS In A Sentence • Despite losing to the Rock, John Cenanever gave up. • The champion CM Punk challenged him to a match. • CM Punk is a very skillful wrestler with a painful finishing move. subject subject complement direct object indirect object object of a preposition object complement appositive.
Final Practice With NounsDecide what Each Noun Is Functioning AS In A Sentence • The PS3 is truly the superior gaming system. • Many students unwisely waste their money on XBOX. • The PS3 offers gamers a superior experience due to its advanced hardware. subject subject complement direct object indirect object object of a preposition object complement appositive.
Further Practice • Write a sentence with an indirect object and a direct object. • Write a sentence with a subject complement and an object of a preposition. • Write a sentence with a restrictive appositive (or appositive phrase) and a direct object. • Write a sentence with a nonrestrictive appositive (or appositive phrase) and a subject complement.
IV. Pronouns • Personal pronouns can be subjects, objects, or possessive. Copy This Chart!
IV. Pronouns (cont.) • A subject pronoun can be the subject or subject complement in a sentence. I rode the llama twice at the fair. (subject) The man who owned the llama was he. (subject complement) • Remember to use a subject pronoun even when the subject or complement is compound. Paco and I went to the llama festival. (subject) The men riding the llamas were Paco and I. (subject complement)
Pronouns (cont.) 3. Object pronouns are used as the object of an action verb, and indirect object, or a preposition. Paco claimed the llama kicked him. (direct object) Paco later sued the llama’s owner because of the emotional damage caused by it. (object of a preposition) The owner gave him nearly a million dollars in damages. (indirect object)
PracticeRead the sentence. Circle the personal pronoun. Identify it as a subject, subject complement, direct object, indirect object, or object of preposition. • The unfortunate students who were caught stealing Mr. Bailey’s lunch were he and Paco. • The young men sold it to their friend Umberto for five dollars. • Umberto opened the lunch, and he was horrified to find that Mr. Bailey ate bologna and olives each day. • He found Mr. Bailey’s car and put the lunch inside of it. • Needless to say, the terrible aroma soon offended him greatly. Further Practice: Textbook Page 54 exercises 3.2 and 3.3
Pronouns (cont) B. The words “than” and “as” are used in comparisons, and make using pronouns difficult. 1. Sentences that use these words often omit information needed to help determine pronoun use 2. You need to add missing words to determine usage. Examples: Judges choose him as a winner more often than they choose (she/her) Judges choose him as a winner more often than they choose her. Jacob is as good a competitive eater as (she/her) Jacob is as good a competitive eater as sheis. Jacob’s hot dog eating impressed me more than (they/them) Jacob’s hot dog eating impressed me more than it impressed them. I’ve known Jacob longer than (he/him) I’ve known Jacob longer than hehas known Jacob.
PracticeChoose the correct pronoun to complete each sentence. • Jacob eats more quickly than (she/her). • Dustin rides llamas better than (I / me). • Juan is much more bovine than (I / me). • Paco’s singing impressed me as much as (she / her). • Everyone is as excited about the taco-eating contest as (I / me). • No one was more pleased with the success of the taco-eating contest than (he / him). • The English teacher helped Umberto more than (he /him). More Practice: Textbook page 39 exercise 2
Pronouns (cont) C. Pronouns can be intensive pronouns, which emphasize a preceding noun. D. Pronouns can be reflexive pronouns, which are the object of a verb or preposition.
PracticeFill in the blank with the appropriate intensive or reflexive pronoun. • Hubert ate fourteen tacos by ___________. • Florence ______________ prepared them for him. • Afterwards, Florence blamed __________________ for the mess Hubert made. • It seems that the tacos had spoiled _______________ in the hot sun. More Practice: Page 43 exercise 3
Pronouns (cont.) E. Pronouns can be demonstrative, which point out a particular person, place, or thing. F. Pronouns can be interrogative, which ask questions.
Who Or Whom?Can also be used as relative pronouns. • Who is also a subject • Whom is always an object Who visited Mexico? (subject) Whom did you visit there? (object) Who gave you the burrito? (subject) To whom did you give the burrito? (object) Paco is the man who gave it to me. (subject) Paco is the man to whom it was given. (object)
PracticeFill in the blank with either “who” or “whom” • (who / whom) is the last Oriole to play 162 games? • To ( who / whom ) is the Most Valuable Oriole award going? • Adam Jones is the player ( who / whom) is winning the award. • Many of the players ( who / whom ) play on the Orioles had great seasons. • Many players on the Nationals, for ( who / whom ) winning is not a usual event, are excited to win their division. • The Nationals are a team about ( who / whom ) we talk very little. • They are the team (who / whom) plays in Washington.
Pronouns (cont.) G. Pronouns can be relative pronouns. Relative pronouns join a subordinate clause to its antecedent in the independent clause. 1. Relative pronouns are who, whom, that, those, and which The Nationals are a team that relies on good starting pitching. Steven Strasburg was their ace who hurt his arm last year. The decision to shut down Strasburg, which many fans protested, may cost the team the World Series. Mr. Bailey, whose dream is an Orioles/Nationals World Series, remains hopeful.
Pronouns (cont.) H. A pronoun can be an indefinite pronoun. An indefinite pronoun refers to any or all of a group of people, places, or things. 1. Full list appears on page 50 of textbook. Few may know that the MLB hall of fame is located in New York. Its purpose is to honor players and others who had contributed to baseball history. All of those in the hall are acknowledged greats. Several of the Orioles are elected into the Hall of Fame. Can anybody name some of those 5 players?
PracticeWrite the Sentence. Circle the Pronoun. Identify whether it is a relative pronoun or an indefinite pronoun. Sentences may have more than 1 • Buck Showalter is largely viewed as the manager who really turned around the Orioles franchise. • Anybody who has watched the team this year has seen their hustle. • Many have played better than expected. • Chris Davis, whose exceeded expectations, clobbered 52 homeruns, which is a team record. • Camden Yards, which celebrated its 21th anniversary, is a stadium that everyone can agree is beautiful.
V. Interjections • An interjection is a word or phrase that expresses a strong emotion. Ouch, I just smashed my toe. Yowza, that burrito is spicy. Nonesense, I will never eat snail meat. B. As a general rule, never use interjections in academic writing.
VI. Adjectives • Descriptive adjectives describe a noun or pronoun. The spicy, hot burrito scorched my tongue. The boy fell in love with the beautiful woman. • They can be a subject complement when they follow a linking verb. Mr. Bailey was hungry after school. Pedro is afraid that goblins will steal his Xbox. 2. They can be an object complement when they follow a direct object. The burrito left Umberto sick. The snowstorm made the students happy.
Adjectives (cont.) B. Demonstrative, Interrogative, and Indefinite pronouns can all be used as adjectives if they precede a noun. This cheeseburger is delicious. (as adjective) This is a delicious cheeseburger. (as pronoun) Which fast food restaurant do you prefer? (as adjective) Which is the restaurant you prefer? (as pronoun) Some students believe that Five Guys is the most delicious. (as adjective) Some feel that Arby’s offers the best food. (as pronoun)
PracticeIn each of the following sentences, circle all instances of adjectives. (remember a, an, and the are adjectives) • Umberto took Olga to a popular restaurant. • Olga felt queasy after consuming rancid tacos. • They made Olga sick. • Frightening noises emanated from Olga’s rumbling stomach. • Umberto was disappointed by the miserable date.
More PracticeWrite the sentence. Circle the demonstrative, interrogative, or indefinite word and write whether it is a pronoun or adjective. • Who agrees Five Guys is delicious? • That restaurant serves the best hamburgers in town. • The owners fill every bag with a mountain of hot french fries. • What is your favorite topping on a hamburger? • Many tell me they prefer bacon. • Personally, I request several handfuls of jalapenos. HW: WB Pages 13 and 14
Adjectives (cont.) C. Most adjectives have three degrees of comparison: positive, comparative, and superlative. 1. Positive degree shows a quality of a noun 2. Comparative degree compares two items or sets of items 3. Superlative degree compares three or more items.
Adjectives (cont.) D. The adjectives few and less have a special rule that applies to them. 1. Use “few/fewer/fewest” to compare concrete nouns that can be counted. 2. Use “little/less/least” to compare abstract nouns or nouns that cannot be counted by quantity. Olga can eat fewer tacos than Umberto. Umberto puts less hot sauce on his tacos. Umberto’s mom ate the fewest menu items of all. Olga possesses the least love for Chipotle.
PracticeWrite the sentence being described. • Write a sentence that uses the superlative degree of “delicious.” • Write a sentence that uses the comparative degree of “smart” • Write a sentence that uses the superlative degree of “bad”
PracticeWrite the sentence being described. • Write a sentence that uses the comparative degree of “few” • Write a sentence that uses the superlative degree of “few” • Write a sentence that uses the comparative degree of “little” • Write a sentence that uses the superlative degree of “little” HW: WB Pages 16 and 17
A clause always has a noun and a verb. • Can be Independent (meaning can stand by itself as a sentence) • Can be Subordinate (meaning must be attached to an independent clause) Review: Clauses
Clause practiceis each indicated clause independent or subordinate? Despite the fact that he already ate four hamburgers for lunch, Umberto ate dinner at Five Guys. The remarkably beautiful girl, who always flirted with Umberto, overlooked his disgustingly greasy appearance. When the two of them got married, the couple honeymooned at a Golden Corral. They bought a new house together in Texas, which is a state notorious for having overweight people.
A phrase is always missing either a noun or a verb. • A common type of phrase is a prepositional phrase. • Here are the 25 most common prepositions: • Prepositional phrases begin with a preposition and end with a noun. I found the rotten taco under the table. One of my favorite stories is by the illustrious Edgar Allan Poe, who lived in Baltimore. Review:Phrases
Adjectives (cont.) E. Some subordinate clauses are adjective clauses which describe nouns. 1. They always begin with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, that, which, where, and when) 2. They can be restrictive or nonrestrictive Chimichangas, which are fried burritos, are a delicious meal. (nonrestrictive) The chimichangasthat we ate at dinner were very filling.(restrictive) Humbert was the kid who ate too many of them. (restrictive) Humbert, whose mom is a nurse, had to carry him to the car. (nonrestrictive) Unfortunately for her, the car is the place where he got very sick. (restrictive)