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Distribution of Earth’s Water. The Oceans Water covers about 75% of the Earth’s surface 97% is salt water 3% is fresh water only 1% of fresh water can be used. There are 4 major bodies of water: Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic Ocean.

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distribution of earth s water

Distribution of Earth’s Water

The Oceans

Water covers about 75% of the Earth’s surface

97% is salt water

3% is fresh water

only 1% of fresh water can be used

  • There are 4 major bodies of water:
      • Atlantic Ocean
      • Pacific Ocean
      • Indian Ocean
      • Arctic Ocean
slide2

Ice- 76% of fresh water - Most of Earth’s fresh water is locked in thick sheets of ice near the North and South Poles. - Icebergs – huge chunks of floating ice made of fresh water.

Rivers and Lakes

  • .34% of fresh water
  • Very little fresh water but important to people who live near them.
  • Groundwater
    • - 23% of fresh water (shallow and deep combined)
    • - Water fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers.
surface water
Surface Water

River Systems

a. Tributary – streams and smaller rivers that feed into a main river

b. Watershed – land area that supplies water to a river system.

c. Divide – separates one watershed from another by a ridge of land

  • Pond
    • a. Body of fresh, standing water
    • b. Smaller than lakes – sunlight reaches the bottom
    • c. Formed when water collects in hollows or low-lying areas of land
    • d. Home too many animals including frogs, crayfish, sunfish, water lilies, algae, etc.
slide4

Lakes- Body of fresh water that no sunlight reaches the bottom- Deep and big- Formed two ways Same as a pond Powerful forces that shape Earth’s surface such as ice depressions, crust movement or volcanoes

Wetlands – a land area that is covered with water during part or all of the year.

  • 3 types
    • Marshes – grass covered by shallow water
    • Swamps – flooded forests with trees – usually in warm, humid climates
    • Bogs – depression from ice sheets – usually in cold climates
water underground
Water Underground

Movement

  • Permeable – water runs through the ground
    • Gravel
  • Impermeable – water cannot pass through easily
    • Clay
    • Granite
  • Zones
    • Saturated – soil is totally filled with water
    • Unsaturated – soil can still accept water
slide6

Ground water

  • Springs – ground water bubbles or flows out of cracks in rock to Earth’s surface
  • Aquifer – underground rock or sediment that holds water
  • Well – channel dug into an aquifer to provide a supply of water
  • Geyser – hot spring from which water periodically erupts out
using freshwater resources
Using Freshwater Resources

How People Use Fresh Water

  • Household purposes
  • Industry
  • Transportation
  • Agriculture
    • Irrigation – supplying water to areas of land to make them suitable for growing crops
  • Recreation
conserving water reduce recycle reuse
Conserving WaterReduceRecycleReuse

Pollution – addition of any substance that has a negative effect on water or the living things that depend on the water