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Physical Oceanography The Oceans Sea Water Ocean Movements Chap. 15 Objectives The Oceans – 15.1 identify methods used by scientists to study Earth’s oceans discuss the origin and composition of the oceans. describe the distribution of oceans and major seas Introduction

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physical oceanography

Physical Oceanography

The Oceans

Sea Water

Ocean Movements

Chap. 15

the oceans 15 1

Objectives

The Oceans – 15.1

  • identify methods used by scientists to study Earth’s oceans
  • discuss the origin and composition of the oceans.
  • describe the distribution of oceans and major seas
slide4

Introduction

  • Uses

What are some useful features of oceans?

slide5

Introduction

  • Uses
  • travel
  • fishing/food
  • recreation
slide6

Introduction

  • Uses
  • Studying
slide7

Introduction

  • Uses
  • Studying
  • H.M.S. Challenger

Measured depth, water temperature, fauna, current, and other data. First measured Mariana trench (26,890 ft.)

slide8

Introduction

  • Uses
  • Studying
  • H.M.S. Challenger
  • Meteor

Used sonar to map undersea topography

slide9

Example Calculation

A sonar signal travels about 1500 m/s in ocean water. If it takes 6 seconds for a signal to return to the ship after it is emitted what is the distance to the ocean floor?

slide10

Introduction

  • Uses
  • Studying
  • H.M.S. Challenger
  • Meteor
  • TOPEX-Poseidon

NASA satellite that measures ocean data

slide11

TOPEX/Poseidon

  • tracks ocean tides
  • measures sea levels (to 5 cm accuracy)
  • monitors climates by measuring ocean temperatures.
slide13

Ocean origins

  • Oceans are as old as Earth’s rocks
slide14

Ocean origins

  • Oceans are as old as Earth’s rocks
  • Lava flows have been dated at 4.6 b.y.
slide15

Ocean origins

  • Oceans are as old as Earth’s rocks
  • Lava flows have been dated at 4.6 b.y.
  • These formed rocks by cooling quickly (in water)
slide16

Ocean origins

  • Oceans are as old as Earth’s rocks
  • Source of water
slide17

Ocean origins

  • Oceans are as old as Earth’s rocks
  • Source of water
  • Comets (dirty snow balls)
slide18

Ocean origins

  • Oceans are as old as Earth’s rocks
  • Source of water
  • Comets (dirty snow balls)
  • Water was trapped in Earth when it formed. Volcanoes released this into the atmosphere.
slide19

Earth’s Water

This is also called the hydrosphere

slide20

Earth’s Water

  • Location

Where is the Earth’s water found?

slide27

Earth’s Water

  • Location
  • Amount of frozen water has varied
slide28

Earth’s Water

  • Location
  • Amount of frozen water has varied
  • During ice ages as much as 10% of hydrosphere was frozen.
slide29

Earth’s Water

  • Location
  • Amount of frozen water has varied
  • During ice ages as much as 10% of hydrosphere was frozen.
  • Sea level varied by hundreds of meters.

Due to melting of glaciers and tectonic forces altering sea floor.

slide30

Earth’s Water

  • Most of Earth’s surface is covered by water (71%)
slide31

Earth’s Water

  • Most of Earth’s surface is covered by water (71%)
  • The hemisphere contains higher percentage of water.
slide32

Earth’s Water

  • Most of Earth’s surface is covered by water (71%)
  • The southern hemisphere contains higher percentage of water.
  • All oceans are connected.
slide33

Earth’s Water

  • Most of Earth’s surface is covered by water (71%)
  • The southern hemisphere contains higher percentage of water.
  • All oceans are connected.
  • Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans are main oceans.
slide34

Earth’s Water

  • Most of Earth’s surface is covered by water (71%)
  • The southern hemisphere contains higher percentage of water.
  • All oceans are connected.
  • Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans are main oceans.
  • Seas are partly or mostly surrounded by land.
slide35

Earth’s Water

  • Most of Earth’s surface is covered by water (71%)
  • The southern hemisphere contains higher percentage of water.
  • All oceans are connected.
  • Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans are main oceans.
  • Seas are partly or mostly surrounded by land.
  • Sea ice forms in the Arctic and Antarctic seas.
seawater 15 2

Objectives

Seawater - 15.2

  • compare & contrast physical and chemical properties of seawater
  • explain ocean layering
  • describe the formation of deep-water masses
slide39

Chemical Properties

  • Salinity

A measure of the dissolved salts in water.

slide40

Chemical Properties

  • Salinity
  • Sea water is about 35 parts per thousand (ppt) salts
slide41

Chemical Properties

  • Salinity
  • Sea water is about 35 parts per thousand (ppt) salts
  • Salts include Na+, Cl- , SO42-, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, HCO3-, and others
slide42

Chemical Properties

  • Salinity
  • The salinity varies and is lower where there is . . .
slide43

Chemical Properties

  • Salinity
  • The salinity varies and is lower where there is . . .
  • a lot of precipitation
slide44

Chemical Properties

  • Salinity
  • The salinity varies and is lower where there is . . .
  • a lot of precipitation
  • an estuary/river delta
slide45

Chemical Properties

  • Salinity
  • The salinity varies and is lower where there is . . .
  • a lot of precipitation
  • an estuary/river delta
  • melting of glaciers
slide46

Chemical Properties

  • Salinity
  • Source of sea salt
slide47

Chemical Properties

  • Salinity
  • Source of sea salt
  • the atmosphere (Cl- and SO42-)
slide48

Chemical Properties

  • Salinity
  • Source of sea salt
  • the atmosphere (Cl- and SO42-)
  • weathering rocks (Na+, K+, Ca2+ from feldspar)
slide49

Chemical Properties

  • Salinity
  • Source of sea salt
  • Removing sea salt
slide50

Chemical Properties

  • Salinity
  • Source of sea salt
  • Removing sea salt
  • deposited when water evaporates
slide51

Chemical Properties

  • Salinity
  • Source of sea salt
  • Removing sea salt
  • deposited when water evaporates
  • carried via sea spray
slide52

Chemical Properties

  • Salinity
  • Source of sea salt
  • Removing sea salt
  • deposited when water evaporates
  • carried via sea spray
  • marine organisms use it in building shells, bones, and teeth
slide54

Physical Properties

  • Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm3

Density of fresh water is 1.00 g/cm3

slide55

Physical Properties

  • Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm3
  • Freezing point is less than 0ºC

Can be as low as -2ºC

slide56

Physical Properties

  • Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm3
  • Freezing point is less than 0ºC
  • Light absorption
slide57

Physical Properties

  • Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm3
  • Freezing point is less than 0ºC
  • Light absorption
  • Water absorbs light

The ocean is completely dark at depths > 100 m

slide58

Physical Properties

  • Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm3
  • Freezing point is less than 0ºC
  • Light absorption
  • Water absorbs light
  • Some colors penetrate further than others
slide60

Physical Properties

  • Layers
  • The deeper you go the _____ the temp.
slide61

Physical Properties

  • Layers
  • The deeper you go the cooler the temp.
  • Temperature profiles show water depth/temperature relationship
slide62

Physical Properties

  • Layers
  • The deeper you go the cooler the temp.
  • Temperature profiles show water depth/temperature relationship
  • The thermocline is a layer in which the temperature decreases linearly with depth
slide63

Physical Properties

  • Layers
  • The deeper you go the cooler the temp.
  • Temperature profiles show water depth/temperature relationship
  • The thermocline is a layer in which the temperature decreases linearly with depth
  • There is no thermocline for polar seas
slide65

Physical Properties

  • Water masses
  • Cold water comes from polar seas
slide66

Physical Properties

  • Water masses
  • Cold water comes from polar seas
  • Surface water sinks as salinity increases due to sea ice formation
slide67

Physical Properties

  • Water masses
  • Cold water comes from polar seas
  • Surface water sinks as salinity increases due to sea ice formation
  • Deep currents carry water to the equator
ocean movements 15 3

Objectives

Ocean Movements – 15.3

  • describe the physical properties of waves
  • explain how tides form
  • compare and contrast various ocean currents

http://tv-antenna.com/heavy-seas/3/

slide70

Waves

Periodic movement that carries energy from one place to another.

slide71

Waves

  • Wave characteristics
slide72

Waves

  • Wave characteristics
  • Crest

http://ans.hsh.no/home/bji/Fys01/week8/nasa/

The peak of a wave

slide73

Waves

  • Wave characteristics
  • Crest
  • Trough

http://ans.hsh.no/home/bji/Fys01/week8/nasa/

Lowest part of a wave

slide74

Waves

  • Wave characteristics
  • Crest
  • Trough
  • Wavelength

http://ans.hsh.no/home/bji/Fys01/week8/nasa/

Distance between successive wave crests (or troughs)

slide75

Waves

  • Wave characteristics
  • Crest
  • Trough
  • Wavelength
  • Wave height

Depends on wind speed, wind duration, and fetch.

slide76

Waves

  • Wave characteristics
  • Breakers

Collapsing waves

slide77

Waves

  • Wave characteristics
  • Breakers
  • Waves slow down

More friction with ocean bottom causes waves to slow.

slide78

Waves

  • Wave characteristics
  • Breakers
  • Waves slow down
  • Waves become unstable

The tops of the waves collapse forward because the bottoms are being slowed

slide79

Waves

  • Tides

Periodic rise and fall of sea level.

slide80

Waves

  • Tides
  • High tide

Highest level to which water rises (a bulge of water)

slide81

Waves

  • Tides
  • High tide
  • Low tide

Lowest level water rises (caused by lack of water)

slide82

Waves

  • Tides
  • Types of daily cycles

Caused by topography and latitude

slide83

Waves

  • Tides
  • Types of daily cycles
  • Semidiurnal

Characterized by __ high tides each day

slide84

Waves

  • Tides
  • Types of daily cycles
  • Semidiurnal
  • Mixed

Have one pronounced high tide and one _____ high tide

slide85

Waves

  • Tides
  • Types of daily cycles
  • Semidiurnal
  • Mixed
  • Diurnal

Characterized by one ____ ____ each day

slide86

Waves

  • Tides

tutorial

  • Cause of tides
slide87

Waves

  • Tides
  • Cause of tides
  • Gravity from themoon pulls on earth/oceans
slide88

Waves

  • Tides
  • Cause of tides
  • Gravity from themoon pulls on earth/oceans
  • Centrifugal motion moves the water away from Earth
slide89

Waves

  • Tides
  • Cause of tides
  • During spring tide (unrelated to the season) high tides are highest
slide90

Waves

  • Tides
  • Cause of tides
  • During spring tide (unrelated to the season) high tides are highest
  • During neap tide high tides are lower and low tides are higher than normal
slide91

Waves

  • Tides
  • Cause of tides
  • The sun influences tides to a smaller degree

This is because of the greater distance between Earth and the sun (compared to Earth and the moon)

slide92

Ocean Currents

  • Density currents

Move bottom water according to temperature and salinity differences

slide93

Ocean Currents

  • Density currents
  • Surface currents

Driven by surface wind.

slide94

Ocean Currents

  • Density currents
  • Surface currents
  • Follow global wind patterns

Trade winds, prevailing westerlies, polar easterly winds. Coriolis effect alters directions

slide95

Ocean Currents

  • Density currents
  • Surface currents
  • Follow global wind patterns
  • Currents from the poles bring colder water, while currents from equator bring warmer water
slide96

Ocean Currents

  • Density currents
  • Surface currents
  • Follow global wind patterns
  • Currents from the poles bring colder water, while currents from equator bring warmer water
  • Gyres develop due to landmasses interacting with current flow

Circular surface ocean currents

slide98

Ocean Currents

  • Upwelling brings nutrient-rich water.

Movement of cold water upward as surface water is blown by offshore winds