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Physical Oceanography The Oceans Sea Water Ocean Movements Chap. 15 Objectives The Oceans – 15.1 identify methods used by scientists to study Earth’s oceans discuss the origin and composition of the oceans. describe the distribution of oceans and major seas Introduction

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Physical oceanography l.jpg

Physical Oceanography

The Oceans

Sea Water

Ocean Movements

Chap. 15


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Objectives

The Oceans – 15.1

  • identify methods used by scientists to study Earth’s oceans

  • discuss the origin and composition of the oceans.

  • describe the distribution of oceans and major seas



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  • Uses

What are some useful features of oceans?


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  • Uses

  • travel

  • fishing/food

  • recreation


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  • Uses

  • Studying


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  • Uses

  • Studying

  • H.M.S. Challenger

Measured depth, water temperature, fauna, current, and other data. First measured Mariana trench (26,890 ft.)


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  • Uses

  • Studying

  • H.M.S. Challenger

  • Meteor

Used sonar to map undersea topography


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Example Calculation

A sonar signal travels about 1500 m/s in ocean water. If it takes 6 seconds for a signal to return to the ship after it is emitted what is the distance to the ocean floor?


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  • Uses

  • Studying

  • H.M.S. Challenger

  • Meteor

  • TOPEX-Poseidon

NASA satellite that measures ocean data


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TOPEX/Poseidon

  • tracks ocean tides

  • measures sea levels (to 5 cm accuracy)

  • monitors climates by measuring ocean temperatures.



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  • Oceans are as old as Earth’s rocks


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  • Oceans are as old as Earth’s rocks

  • Lava flows have been dated at 4.6 b.y.


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  • Oceans are as old as Earth’s rocks

  • Lava flows have been dated at 4.6 b.y.

  • These formed rocks by cooling quickly (in water)


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  • Oceans are as old as Earth’s rocks

  • Source of water


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  • Oceans are as old as Earth’s rocks

  • Source of water

  • Comets (dirty snow balls)


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  • Oceans are as old as Earth’s rocks

  • Source of water

  • Comets (dirty snow balls)

  • Water was trapped in Earth when it formed. Volcanoes released this into the atmosphere.


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This is also called the hydrosphere


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  • Location

Where is the Earth’s water found?








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  • Location

  • Amount of frozen water has varied


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  • Location

  • Amount of frozen water has varied

  • During ice ages as much as 10% of hydrosphere was frozen.


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  • Location

  • Amount of frozen water has varied

  • During ice ages as much as 10% of hydrosphere was frozen.

  • Sea level varied by hundreds of meters.

Due to melting of glaciers and tectonic forces altering sea floor.


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  • Most of Earth’s surface is covered by water (71%)


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  • Most of Earth’s surface is covered by water (71%)

  • The hemisphere contains higher percentage of water.


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  • Most of Earth’s surface is covered by water (71%)

  • The southern hemisphere contains higher percentage of water.

  • All oceans are connected.


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  • Most of Earth’s surface is covered by water (71%)

  • The southern hemisphere contains higher percentage of water.

  • All oceans are connected.

  • Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans are main oceans.


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  • Most of Earth’s surface is covered by water (71%)

  • The southern hemisphere contains higher percentage of water.

  • All oceans are connected.

  • Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans are main oceans.

  • Seas are partly or mostly surrounded by land.


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  • Most of Earth’s surface is covered by water (71%)

  • The southern hemisphere contains higher percentage of water.

  • All oceans are connected.

  • Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans are main oceans.

  • Seas are partly or mostly surrounded by land.

  • Sea ice forms in the Arctic and Antarctic seas.



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Objectives

Seawater - 15.2

  • compare & contrast physical and chemical properties of seawater

  • explain ocean layering

  • describe the formation of deep-water masses



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  • Salinity

A measure of the dissolved salts in water.


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  • Salinity

  • Sea water is about 35 parts per thousand (ppt) salts


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  • Salinity

  • Sea water is about 35 parts per thousand (ppt) salts

  • Salts include Na+, Cl- , SO42-, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, HCO3-, and others


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  • Salinity

  • The salinity varies and is lower where there is . . .


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  • Salinity

  • The salinity varies and is lower where there is . . .

  • a lot of precipitation


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  • Salinity

  • The salinity varies and is lower where there is . . .

  • a lot of precipitation

  • an estuary/river delta


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  • Salinity

  • The salinity varies and is lower where there is . . .

  • a lot of precipitation

  • an estuary/river delta

  • melting of glaciers


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  • Salinity

  • Source of sea salt


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  • Salinity

  • Source of sea salt

  • the atmosphere (Cl- and SO42-)


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  • Salinity

  • Source of sea salt

  • the atmosphere (Cl- and SO42-)

  • weathering rocks (Na+, K+, Ca2+ from feldspar)


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  • Salinity

  • Source of sea salt

  • Removing sea salt


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  • Salinity

  • Source of sea salt

  • Removing sea salt

  • deposited when water evaporates


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  • Salinity

  • Source of sea salt

  • Removing sea salt

  • deposited when water evaporates

  • carried via sea spray


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  • Salinity

  • Source of sea salt

  • Removing sea salt

  • deposited when water evaporates

  • carried via sea spray

  • marine organisms use it in building shells, bones, and teeth



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  • Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm3

Density of fresh water is 1.00 g/cm3


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  • Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm3

  • Freezing point is less than 0ºC

Can be as low as -2ºC


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  • Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm3

  • Freezing point is less than 0ºC

  • Light absorption


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  • Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm3

  • Freezing point is less than 0ºC

  • Light absorption

  • Water absorbs light

The ocean is completely dark at depths > 100 m


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  • Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm3

  • Freezing point is less than 0ºC

  • Light absorption

  • Water absorbs light

  • Some colors penetrate further than others



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  • Layers

  • The deeper you go the _____ the temp.


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  • Layers

  • The deeper you go the cooler the temp.

  • Temperature profiles show water depth/temperature relationship


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  • Layers

  • The deeper you go the cooler the temp.

  • Temperature profiles show water depth/temperature relationship

  • The thermocline is a layer in which the temperature decreases linearly with depth


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  • Layers

  • The deeper you go the cooler the temp.

  • Temperature profiles show water depth/temperature relationship

  • The thermocline is a layer in which the temperature decreases linearly with depth

  • There is no thermocline for polar seas


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  • Water masses


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  • Water masses

  • Cold water comes from polar seas


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  • Water masses

  • Cold water comes from polar seas

  • Surface water sinks as salinity increases due to sea ice formation


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  • Water masses

  • Cold water comes from polar seas

  • Surface water sinks as salinity increases due to sea ice formation

  • Deep currents carry water to the equator



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Objectives

Ocean Movements – 15.3

  • describe the physical properties of waves

  • explain how tides form

  • compare and contrast various ocean currents

http://tv-antenna.com/heavy-seas/3/


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Periodic movement that carries energy from one place to another.


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  • Wave characteristics


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  • Wave characteristics

  • Crest

http://ans.hsh.no/home/bji/Fys01/week8/nasa/

The peak of a wave


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  • Wave characteristics

  • Crest

  • Trough

http://ans.hsh.no/home/bji/Fys01/week8/nasa/

Lowest part of a wave


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  • Wave characteristics

  • Crest

  • Trough

  • Wavelength

http://ans.hsh.no/home/bji/Fys01/week8/nasa/

Distance between successive wave crests (or troughs)


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  • Wave characteristics

  • Crest

  • Trough

  • Wavelength

  • Wave height

Depends on wind speed, wind duration, and fetch.


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  • Wave characteristics

  • Breakers

Collapsing waves


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  • Wave characteristics

  • Breakers

  • Waves slow down

More friction with ocean bottom causes waves to slow.


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  • Wave characteristics

  • Breakers

  • Waves slow down

  • Waves become unstable

The tops of the waves collapse forward because the bottoms are being slowed


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  • Tides

Periodic rise and fall of sea level.


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  • Tides

  • High tide

Highest level to which water rises (a bulge of water)


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  • Tides

  • High tide

  • Low tide

Lowest level water rises (caused by lack of water)


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  • Tides

  • Types of daily cycles

Caused by topography and latitude


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  • Tides

  • Types of daily cycles

  • Semidiurnal

Characterized by __ high tides each day


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  • Tides

  • Types of daily cycles

  • Semidiurnal

  • Mixed

Have one pronounced high tide and one _____ high tide


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  • Tides

  • Types of daily cycles

  • Semidiurnal

  • Mixed

  • Diurnal

Characterized by one ____ ____ each day


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  • Tides

tutorial

  • Cause of tides


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  • Tides

  • Cause of tides

  • Gravity from themoon pulls on earth/oceans


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  • Tides

  • Cause of tides

  • Gravity from themoon pulls on earth/oceans

  • Centrifugal motion moves the water away from Earth


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  • Tides

  • Cause of tides

  • During spring tide (unrelated to the season) high tides are highest


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  • Tides

  • Cause of tides

  • During spring tide (unrelated to the season) high tides are highest

  • During neap tide high tides are lower and low tides are higher than normal


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  • Tides

  • Cause of tides

  • The sun influences tides to a smaller degree

This is because of the greater distance between Earth and the sun (compared to Earth and the moon)


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  • Density currents

Move bottom water according to temperature and salinity differences


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  • Density currents

  • Surface currents

Driven by surface wind.


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  • Density currents

  • Surface currents

  • Follow global wind patterns

Trade winds, prevailing westerlies, polar easterly winds. Coriolis effect alters directions


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  • Density currents

  • Surface currents

  • Follow global wind patterns

  • Currents from the poles bring colder water, while currents from equator bring warmer water


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  • Density currents

  • Surface currents

  • Follow global wind patterns

  • Currents from the poles bring colder water, while currents from equator bring warmer water

  • Gyres develop due to landmasses interacting with current flow

Circular surface ocean currents



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  • Upwelling brings nutrient-rich water.

Movement of cold water upward as surface water is blown by offshore winds



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