Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Production, Saving, and Time PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Production, Saving, and Time

Production, Saving, and Time

209 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Production, Saving, and Time

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Production, Saving, and Time • Production • Cannot occur without prior saving • Roundabout production • Produce capital to increase productivity • Requires saving • Takes time • Goods and services are not available from current production

  2. Consumption, Saving, and Time • Consumers • Positive rate of time preference • Willing to pay more to consume now • Impatience • Uncertainty • Interest • Reward for postponing consumption

  3. Consumption, Saving, and Time • Positive rate of time preference • Consumers value present consumption more than future consumption • People must be rewarded to postpone consumption • Interest rate • Interest per year as a percentage of the amount saved or borrowed

  4. Optimal Investment • Specialization and exchange • Purchase capital • Borrow funds • Firms buy new capital goods • If they expect this investment to yield a higher return than other possible uses of their funds

  5. Optimal Investment • Expected rate of return on capital • Expected annual earnings divided by capital’s purchase price • Market interest rate • Opportunity cost of investing • Maximize profit • Increase investment as long as marginal rate of return > market interest rate

  6. Exhibit 1 Expected Rate of Return on Golf Carts and the Opportunity Cost of Funds 25 Expected rate of return 20 15 Market rate of interest Interest rate (percent) 10 8 5 $5,000 $10,000 $15,000 $20,000 $25,000 0 Investment An individual firm invests in any project with an expected rate of return that exceeds the market interest rate. At an interest rate of 8 percent, Hacker Haven invests $15,000 in three golf carts.

  7. Optimal Investment • Downward-sloping demand curve for investment (individual industries) • More is invested when the opportunity cost of borrowing is lower • Investment demand curve for the entire economy • Downward sloping

  8. The Market for Loanable Funds • Demanders of loans (borrow) • Entrepreneurs • Start firms • Invest in physical and intellectual capital • Increase investment until • Expected marginal rate of return = market interest rate • Households • Present consumption • Invest in human capital

  9. The Market for Loanable Funds • Demand for loanable funds • Negative relationship between • Market interest rate • Quantity of loans demanded • Declining marginal rate of return • Other things constant • Prices of other resources, technology • Expected rate of inflation, tax laws • Customs and conventions of the market

  10. The Market for Loanable Funds • Supply of loanable funds • Banks = financial intermediaries • Positive relationship between • Market interest rate • Quantity of savings supplied • Interest rate = Reward for saving

  11. The Market for Loanable Funds • Loanable funds market • Savers (suppliers of loanable funds) • And borrowers (demanders of loanable funds) • Come together to determine • Market interest rate • Quantity of loanable funds

  12. Exhibit 2 Market for Loanable Funds Because of the declining expected rate of return on capital, the quantity of loanable funds demanded is inversely related to the interest rate. The market rate of interest, 8 percent, is found where the demand curve for loanable funds intersects the supply curve of loanable funds. An increase in the demand for loanable funds from D to D’ raises the market interest rate from 8 percent to 9 percent and increases the equilibrium quantity of loanable funds from $1.0 to $1.1 trillion S 9 Interest rate (percent) 8 D D’ 0 1.0 1.1 Loanable funds per year (trillions of dollars)

  13. Why Interest Rates Differ • Prime rate • Interest rate lenders charge their most trustworthy business borrowers • Collateral • Asset pledged by the borrower • Can be sold to pay off the loan in the event the borrower defaults

  14. Why Interest Rates Differ • Risk • The more valuable the collateral, the lower the interest rate • Duration of the loan • Interest rate increases with the duration of the loan • Administration costs • Decrease as size of the loan increases • Tax treatment

  15. Exhibit 3 Interest Rates Charged for Different Types of Loans Interest rates are higher for riskier loans. Rates for home mortgages and new cars are relatively low because these loans are backed up by the home or car as collateral. Personal loans and credit card balances face the highest rates, because these loans are riskier—that is, the likelihood borrowers fail to repay the loans is greater and the borrower offers no collateral.

  16. Present Value and Discounting • Present value • Current value of payment(s) to be received in the future • Discounting • Converting future dollar amounts into present value

  17. Present Value and Discounting • Present value one year hence • Amount received one year from now • Divided by (1+interest rate) • The higher the interest rate • The more any future payment is discounted • The lower its present value

  18. Present Value and Discounting • Present value (PV) for payments in later years • Receive M dollars • t years from now • Interest rate i • Smaller for higher t

  19. Present Value and Discounting • Present value of an income stream • Receive $100 next year • And $150 year after next • i=5%

  20. Present Value and Discounting • Annuity • A given sum of money received each year for a specified number of years • Present value of an annuity • Perpetuity – if continues indefinitely • Present value of receiving M dollars each year forever

  21. Entrepreneurship • Entrepreneur • Comes up with an idea • Turns that idea into a marketable product • Accepts the risk of success or failure • Claims any resulting profit or loss (residual claimant)

  22. Entrepreneurship • Entrepreneur • Have the authority to hire and fire the manager • Drive the economy forward • New products • Improve existing products • New production methods • New ways of doing business

  23. Entrepreneurship • Not entrepreneurs • Corporate inventors • Managers • Stockholders

  24. Exhibit 4 Source of U.S. Patents

  25. Corporate Finance • Corporation • Owned by stockholders • Owns property • Earns profit • Sue or get sued • Incur debt

  26. Corporate Stock • Corporations fund investment • Issue and sell stock • Retain some of their profits • Borrow • Initial public offering (IPO) • Initial sale of corporate stock to the public • Corporate stock • Certificate reflecting part ownership of a corporation

  27. Corporate Stock • Corporations pay • Corporate income taxes on any profit • Dividends to shareholders • Dividends • After-tax corporate profit paid to stockholders • Rather than retained by the firm and reinvested

  28. Retained Earnings • Retained earnings • After-tax corporate profit reinvested in the firm • Rather than paid to stockholders as dividends • Help the firm grow

  29. Corporate Bonds • Corporations borrow • Bank loan • Issue and sell bonds • Bond • Certificate reflecting a firm’s promise • To pay the lender periodic interest • And to repay the borrowed sum of money on the designated maturity date • Less risky than stocks

  30. Securities Exchange • Securities market • Stocks and bonds • Secondary market for securities • Enhance liquidity • Hedge funds • Determine the current value of a corporation • Allocate funds more readily to successful firms than to firms in financial difficulty