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P6 Excellent BIOTECHNOLOGY Jamie, Amanda, Wei Heng, Aaron
(TECHNICAL) DEFINITION "Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" ~ Convention on Biological Diversity SOURCE: http://www.cbd.int/convention/articles/default.shtml?a=cbd-02
THE <200 WORD DESCRIPTION A BRIEF INTRO TO BIOTECH • The use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products • Harnesses organisms' cells (mostly for human benefit) • Single-celled bacteria and yeasts • Multicellular plants and animals • NOT new - has been used for centuries SOURCE: http://tinyurl.com/whatisbiotechnology
HISTORY on this slide, 'c' stands for 'century' • 18thC - Used microorganisms to make food items • Late 18thC to early 19thC - Vaccinations • Late 19thC - Work done on genetics, institutes formed for investigation • Early 20thC - Industry and agriculture brought together • World War II - Manufactured penicillin • Cold War - Work done on microorganisms, antibiotics and fermentation processes SOURCE: http://www.woodrow.org/teachers/bi/1993/intro.html
USES (AGRICULTURE) 1) REDUCE VULNERABILITY • Move genes from one organism to another • Allow transfer of useful characteristics into an organism, by inserting genes (DNA) from another organism EXAMPLE: Transferring genes from a plant which can cope in extreme conditions to more productive crops.
USES (AGRICULTURE) 1) REDUCE VULNERABILITY • SOURCE: http://ars.usda.gov/is/ar/archive/nov99/pest1199.htm
USES (AGRICULTURE) 2) TISSUE CULTURE • The growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism • Allow for the reproduction of disease-free planting material for crops EXAMPLE: Crops produced using tissue culture include citrus, pineapples, avocados, mangoes, bananas, coffee and papaya.
USES (AGRICULTURE) 3) INCREASE CROP YIELD • One or two genes can be transferred to a highly developed crop variety • Impart a new characteristic which would increase its yield HOWEVER: There is still much scientific work to be done in this area.
USES (MEDICINE) 1) REDUCE COST & EFFORT • Find new ways to manufacture medicine, previously impossible without modern technology • Manufacture existing medicines relatively easily and cheaply EXAMPLE: Insulin used to be extracted from the pancreas of abattoir animals, before Genentech developed synthetic humanised insulin.
USES (MEDICINE) 2) VACCINES • Biotechnology-derived vaccines are cheaper, better and/or safer than traditional vaccines • Can be completely new vaccines to treat infectious illnesses for the first time EXAMPLE: In Philippines, biotechnology was used to develop and improve a vaccine to protect cattle and water buffaloes from hemorrhagicsepticemia, a leading cause of death for both species.
USES (MEDICINE) 3) ROCKET-POWERED ARM • Rockets are used to power robotic arms, leading to better, stronger and faster prosthetic arms • Stronger (can lift about 10kg, three to four times more than current ones) • Lighter (about 1.8kg, which is around the weight of a human arm) • Functional • Does not require batteries
USES (MEDICINE) ...and a lot of others • Decay-Fighting Microbes • Artificial Lymph Nodes • Asthma Sensor • Cancer Spit Test • Biological Pacemaker • Prosthetic Feedback • Smart Contact Lens • Speech Restorer • Absorbable Heart Stent • Muscle Stimulator • Nerve Regenerator • Stabilizing Insoles • Smart Pill • Autonomous Wheelchair • Gastrointestinal Liner • Liver Scanner • Nanoscale Adhesive • Portable Dialysis • Walking Simulator SOURCE: http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/health/breakthroughs/4303407
IMPACTS THE POSITIVE ONES • Everlasting food supply • Safer food for consumption • The 25 (6+19) uses we mentioned earlier • Agricultural biotechnology has been shown to multiply crop production by seven which will help meet the demands of a growing population • No-till farming, resulting in better soil health and conservation, improved water retention/decreased soil erosion and decreased herbicide runoff
IMPACTS THE NEGATIVE ONES • MAY add to the (already) serious problem of antibiotic resistant bacteria • Food created using biotechnology has not been heavily tested to be healthy and may lead to the harming of human health • Biotechnology might disrupt the nature's system of pest control • Require more water - create dams, organisms' affected, peat fires!
IN CONCLUSION... • Biotechnology has been immensely beneficial • If we do not protect the environment, it will perish! • We will not have enough natural resources So do your part. :)
:D THANK YOU :D Thanks for listening! :)