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Spanish Empire Chapter 2 Section 1. Objectives. Explain Spanish explorers’ achievements. Describe Spanish society in New Spain and Peru. Evaluate the causes and effects of Spanish imperial policies in the American Southwest. Europeans Explore the Americas, 1497–1682.

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Spanish Empire Chapter 2 Section 1

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  • Explain Spanish explorers’ achievements.
  • Describe Spanish society in New Spain and Peru.
  • Evaluate the causes and effects of Spanish imperial policies in the American Southwest.

Divisions among European nations caused conflict.

The conflict was carried to the new coloniesin the Americas.


New SpainPresent-day Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean

  • PeruAll of present-day South America, except for Brazil

Spain organized its territory in the Americas into two viceroyalties or sections.


The Spanish king appointed viceroysto rule New Spain and Peru.

  • Spain did not permit elected assemblies in their colonies.

The viceroys shared power with a Crown-appointed council and the Catholic archbishop.


St. Augustine, Florida, is today the oldest continuously occupied European settlement in the continental United States.

The Spanish fort at St. Augustine


By the 1600s, the Spanish had established the colony of New Mexico.

The friars used Spanish soldiers to frighten the Pueblo Indians into adopting Spanish ways.

Many Indians died from diseases they got from the Spanish.

Some 23,000 Pueblo died between 1638 and 1660.


The Pueblos revolted against the Spanish and destroyed and plundered missions, farms, and ranches.

Spanish settlers and missionaries fled to the southern section of present-day New Mexico for 12 years.

A Pueblo leader, Popé, led the revolt.


Sometime before 1690 Popé died. Within three years, the Spanish reclaimed New Mexico.

The bloody conflict between the Pueblos and Spanish taught each side to compromise.

They worked together against warring Indian tribes.

Spanish practiced greater restraint toward Pueblos

Pueblos accepted Spanish authority



  • Explain how the fur trade affected the French and the Indians in North America.
  • Explain how and why Quebec was founded.
  • Describe the French expansion into Louisiana.

Commerce was the dominant activity in the French colonies.

  • French fur traders, known as coureurs de bois, tradedwith the Indians for valuable beaver pelts.
  • The French sold the beaver pelts for high prices in Europe.

Indians trap

beaver pelts

Indians trade

fur to French

Indians get

metal items

French sell

fur in Europe

American Indians had never developed metal or iron items, and they eagerly traded fur pelts for anything metal.

In exchange for the fur, the Indians got metal items such as arrowheads, axes, knives, hatches, and kettles.


The Frenchtook little land because they were mostly fur traders and fishermen, not farmers.

  • The French did not enslave Indians because they traded with Indians for beaver pelts.
  • French fur traders married Indian women and raised families. Children of mixed French and Native American parents were known as metis.
  • The French king appointed a military governor-general to govern colony. The king did not permit an elected assembly.
fur trade affect on the american indians
Fur trade affect on the American Indians
  • The Good:
    • The goods Native Americans traded for made their lives easier.
    • Education and health opportunities increased
the bad
The Bad:
  • Expanding territory for beaver pelts put tribes that normally didn’t see each other into conflict over hunting ground.
  • Native Americans lost their traditional way of life.

Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec on the St. Lawrence River in 1608 for protection.

Quebec was the first permanent European settlement in Canada.

Warfare also broke out among French fur traders as they competed to get more fur to sell in Europe.


In 1609, Champlain waged war against the Iroquois, the foes of the Indians who traded fur with him.

Having metal weapons, the French won the battle, but the Iroquois raided French settlements for decades to come and adopted metal weaponry.

Not until 1701 did the French and their Indian allies defeat the Iroquois and bring peace to their colonies.


Instead, hediscovered the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River basin.

He claimed the area for France and named it Louisiana, after King Louis XIV.

Guided by Indians, Robert de LaSalle sailed south on the Mississippi looking for the Northwest Passage in 1682.


The French became allies with Indian groups in the Louisiana district.

This helped them stop English expansions into the west and south.

The French formed alliances with Indian groups throughout its colonies.