Colonization. John Cabot. From England Claimed the east coast of North America for England. Queen Elizabeth. Ascended throne in 1558 In later days of her reign, she wanted to expand the English Empire by putting colonies in the North American region that her country owned.
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John Cabot • From England • Claimed the east coast of North America for England
Queen Elizabeth • Ascended throne in 1558 • In later days of her reign, she wanted to expand the English Empire by putting colonies in the North American region that her country owned. • Started the English Colonization process in North America
Henry and his Wives • Catherine of Aragon • Anne Boleyn • Jane Seymour • Anne of Cleves • Catherine Howard • Katherine Parr
What’s Happening? • Religious disagreements • Start to become Protestant under Henry VIII • Church of England • Some wanted to return to Roman Catholic(Catholics); some wanted to simply purify the Anglican church of all Roman Catholic influence (Puritans)
Two Types of Puritans • Stay and Purify Church • Separatists – Separate completely from the church • English government enraged by Separatists • Life will be difficult for them. We will meet them again later…
Reasons to come to the New World • Gold and Silver • Free land • Religious Freedom • Could come as an indentured servant
Definitions • Indentured Servant – person who would work for a period of time (often 7 years) in exchange for passage to the New World. • Joint Stock Companies – businessmen who put small amounts of money together to establish a colony, hoping to gain profits if it were successful. Examples– London Company and Massachusetts Bay Company
More Definitions • Charter – official document granting right to settle and trade • Colony – settlement made by parent company (or country) • Burgess –lawmaking body • Plantation –large farm worked by many laborers, often slaves.
Early Failures • Sir Humphrey Gilbert – 1583 • Given permission to set up a colony, but it failed and he died on way back to England • Sir Walter Raleigh – 1585 • First attempt – took 800 men only. Men got homesick so they went back
The Lost Colony of Roanoke • Sir Walter Raleigh • Chose leader named John White. • White took wife, pregnant daughter and his son-in-law. • Arrived on Roanoke island • Virginia Dare born – first English baby born in America • Not enough supplies
What happened? • White goes back to England to get supplies • Trapped in England by war with Spain (for three years) • When he returned three years later he found everyone gone. • Only clue was words CROATOAN carved on a tree. • Lost forever…
SUCCESS!! • Jamestown – 1607 • Established by the London Company (Joint Stock Company) • Wanted to find gold • Set up on James River – bad location – swampy and bad water • Weathly men thought they were “too good” to work. Wanted to find GOLD.
Disaster Averted • John Smith took over leadership • Made friends with Native Americans through a friendship with Pocahontas • He told them how to keep water fresh and clean • Rule – “No work, no food” • John Smith got hurt and left • New Leader – John Rolfe (married Pocahontas)
Tobacco • Rolfe introduced Tobacco into the colony. FIRST CROP! It became a cash crop (crop that can be sold) • Women arrived from England so families could be started. • To help in tobacco the first African slaves were brought into the colony. • Jamestown eventually becomes known as the Virginia colony
Plymouth Colony • Pilgrim- person who goes on a religious journey • This is a pilgrim colony. • In 1607, these people left England for Holland. After a few years, they realized their children were forgetting English ways. • Decided to go to America to establish a colony to have religious freedom
New Worlds • These pilgrims set sail on the ship, the Mayflower • Created a set of laws to live by (the Mayflower Compact) • This compact was the first self-government in the colonies
Harsh Life • First winter hard – half the colonists died • At spring, an Indian named Squanto came out of the woods. He spoke English. • Taught the English how to grow corn and make friends with the local native Americans • When the crops came in, the Pilgrims invited the Native Americans over for a celebration – our first Thanksgiving • This colony became a part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony • 1630 • This colony was started by Puritans (they also were looking for religious freedom) • Very strict • Said they were founding a “city on a hill” • Their religion became the basic religion of New England (Puritanism)
Rhode Island • Roger Williams thrown out for disagreeing with the Puritan ministers. Williams believed the colony’s charter was invalid; he urged them to be better friends to Native Americans • Anne Hutchison
Pennsylvania • Founded by William Penn • Established by a religious group called Quakers • Quakers are pacifists – do NOT believe in fighting
Maryland • Established as a safe place for Catholics • Lord Baltimore (Cecil Calvert) founded this colony. He was the proprietor. • Like Rhode Island and Pennsylvania, this colony allowed religious freedom • BUT THEY put it in to a law – the Act of Toleration (VERY IMPORTANT!!)
Georgia - 1732 • Debtor’s Prison • James Oglethorpe – social reformer (someone who wants to improve society) asked King George if he could empty debtor’s prison and take them to America to establish colony. • Georgia served as buffer colony against the Spanish in Florida • Last colony established
Other colonies • Connecticut • New Hampshire • New York • Delaware • New Jersey • North Carolina • South Carolina
Poster Project • Create a poster designed to get your colony noticed… • Include founders name and any founding information • Presentation COUNTS!