the vedic hindu religion in india hebrew monotheism and persian zoroastrianism n.
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The Vedic (Hindu) Religion in India, Hebrew Monotheism, and Persian Zoroastrianism. Interactions Among Bronze Age Civilizations: Early Religions and Trade. Aryan migrations into the Indus Valley caused a mixture of ideas to form the basis of Hinduism

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origins of hinduism

Aryan migrations into the Indus Valley caused a mixture of ideas to form the basis of Hinduism

  • The Vedas (1500-600 B.C.E) = a holy book compiled by the Brahmins (priests), contained basic ideas of the impersonal gods of early Hinduism
  • caste system formed out of the ideas in the Vedas (written using Sanskrit language)
  • Dissatisfaction with impersonal Brahmin practices led to the Upanishads (800-400 B.C.E), a holy book showing a more personal relationship with the gods
  • Hinduism eventually was challenged and reformed by the rise of Buddhism
Origins of Hinduism
slide3

Aryan Migration

  • pastoral  depended on their cattle.
  • warriors  horse-drawn chariots.
slide4

Varna System

Brahmins

Kshatriyas

Vaishyas

Shudras

Those with no caste: Untouchables

slide5

The Caste System Justified

Brahmins

  • SOCIAL CLASSES=
  • mouth
  • arms
  • legs
  • feet
  • Of Purusha, a god

Kshatriyas

Vaishyas

Shudras

hindu beliefs
Hindu Beliefs
  • Brahman
    • basically, God. Everyone and everything (including all the other gods) is a manifestation (a part) of Brahman.
  • Ultimate goal
    • Union with Brahman by achieving moksha (liberation) through samsara(reincarnation)
  • Caste System
    • Social mobility in the NEXT LIFE determined by good karma achieved by fulfilling ones dharma (duties)
  • Bhakti(worship) movement
    • Came about as a reaction against Brahmin rituals that weren’t very personal
    • Adoration and personal worship of gods
    • Identification of individuals with a particular deity
vishnu and shiva
Vishnu and Shiva
  • Protector and preserver
  • Destroyer
zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
  • Official religion of the Persian Empire
  • Founded by Zoroaster (600s BCE)
  • Beliefs
    • Monotheistic (Ahura Mazda)
    • Belief in Heaven and Hell
    • Judgment Day
    • Good (God) and Evil (Satan), Savior (Messiah)
  • Assimilated into other monotheistic faiths
slide9

JUDAISM

  • Hebrews in the Middle East
  • Despite conquests by Assyria and Babylonian empires, retained culture and traditions
  • Duteronomic Code – 613 laws in the Old Testament to keep Jews separate from other cultures and prevent assimilation
judaism
Judaism
  • Yahweh- God
    • Powerful and jealous
    • Demanded loyalty
    • People could communicate with God
    • God was viewed to be actively involved in human affairs
  • In return for devotion to Yahweh, became his “chosen people”
  • Basis for Christianity and Islam