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Objectives

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    1. Objectives Describe characteristics common to animals Describe the characteristics of major animal phyla Identify on sight members of major animal phyla Define animal, chordate, vertebrate, invertebrate

    2. Characteristics of animals Multicellular Eukaryotic Heterotrophic Sexual reproduction with some hermaphrodites No cell wall Motile at some stage Rapid response to environment Nerve cells Muscle cells Both

    3. Taxonomy

    4. Taxonomy

    5. Classification 27 Phyla discuss major ones Grouped as: Invertebrates: NO backbone/vertebral column Vertebrates: backbone/vertebral column What is a backbone and what is a chordate? Backbone: supportative bone structure Chordate: has nerve chord We will cover: 6 phyla 5 invertebrate phyla 8 classes within the chordate phyla

    6. Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

    7. Classification: Invertebrate (no backbone) Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

    8. Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

    9. Sponges Sac-like body Cellular level of organization 2 cell layers Filter feeder Rudimentary nervous system CAN regenerate Figure: 16-28b Title: Sponges. Caption: (b) Tiny appendages attach this tubular sponge to rocks. Figure: 16-28b Title: Sponges. Caption: (b) Tiny appendages attach this tubular sponge to rocks.

    11. Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

    12. Cnidaria (Coelenterata) Marine Radial symmetry Two cell layers with differentiation; one body opening Alternating body forms (polyp & medusa) Stinging cells

    16. Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

    17. Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) 3 cell layers Acoelomate Many parasitic and/or pathogenic One way digestive system

    21. Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

    22. Roundworms (Nematoda) Moist environments Most free-living; many parasitic Pseudocoelomate Tube-like digestive system Well-developed senses in free-living

    27. Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

    28. Annelids Segmented Coelomate Hydrostatic skeleton Brain + solid nerve cord Three main types Marine Worms 1 Clam worms (predators) 2 Fan worms (prey) Earthworms Leeches

    30. Annelids

    32. Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Mollusks Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

    33. Molluscs (Mollusca) Soft bodied with protective shells Aquatic/Marine Often mucus feeders Body parts Visceral mass Foot Mantle (secretes shell)

    35. Mollusks

    38. Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

    39. Arthropods 3 types: 1 Crustaceans 2 Insects 3 Arachnids Major characteristics: 1 Exoskeleton (chitin) Protection Attachment for muscles Movement Prevent drying out 2 Segmented bodies Head, thorax, abdomen, w/ jointed appendages 3 Well developed brains and nervous systems

    40. Arthropods: Crustaceans

    41. Arthropods: Insects

    42. Arthropods: Arachnids

    43. Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

    44. Echinoderms Marine animals Internal skeleton Spiny skin Radially symmetrical

    45. Echinoderms

    46. Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Eukarya Animalia Sponges Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates

    47. Phylum Chordata

    48. Chordates have during some time in their development: 1 notochord 2 hollow nerve cord in the back 3 pharyngeal pouches (embryonic structures) 4 tail

    49. Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Eukarya Animalia Sponges Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates Lancets Tunicates Jawless Fish Cartilaginous Fish Bony Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals

    50. Lancets (invertebrate)

    51. Tunicates (invertebrate)

    52. Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Eukarya Animalia Sponges Segmented worms Molluscs Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates Lancets Tunicates Jawless Fish Cartilaginous Fish Vertebrates Bony Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals

    53. Vertebrates 1 living internal skeleton 2 closed circulation 3 paired appendages 4 efficient breathing and excretion 5 highly developed brains

    54. Jawless Fishes-Agnatha (lampreys)

    55. Cartilaginous Fishes-Chondrichthyes 3 Types Sharks Rays Skates 3 Well developed senses electrical pressure smell

    56. Bony Fishes-Osteichthyes Claim to fame: (most numerous vertebrate) 3 Types Perch Trout Salmon 3 Traits Bony skeleton Scales Jaws

    57. Amphibia 4 types Frogs Toads Newts Salamanders 3 traits Usually 4 legs Usually metamorphose Smooth, moist skin

    58. Amphibian Metamorphosis

    59. Reptilia 4 types: Turtles Alligators Snakes Lizards 3 traits Usually 4 legs Egg with a shell Dry, scaly skin

    60. Aves Traits: Feathers Hard-shelled egg Usually wings for flying Classification Beak type Foot type

    61. Birds Adaptations for flying Wings Hollow, light bones Feathers Sternum Well-developed heart Well-developed lungs

    62. Mammalia 4 traits Mammary glands Body hair Warm-blooded Infant dependency 3 types: 1 Monotremes 2 Marsupials 3 Placental

    63. Mammals: Monotremes 2 types 1 spiny anteater 2 duckbilled platypus Reproduction: Eggs

    64. Mammals: Marsupials Location: Australia, 4 types: 1 opossum (here) 2 koala 3 kangaroo 4 Tasmanian wolf Reproduction: Born very early Crawl into a pouch Attach to a mammary gland

    65. Mammals: Placental Mammals

    66. Order: Primates Traits: 1 opposable thumb 2 learned behavior 3 big brain Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: Homo sapiens

    67. Figure: 15-13 Title: A possible evolutionary tree for humans. Caption: This hypothetical family tree shows skulls and facial reconstructions of representative specimens. Although many paleontologists consider this to be the most likely human family tree, there are several alternative interpretations of the known hominid fossils.. Fossils of the earliest hominid, Ardipithecus ramidus, are too fragmentary to enable reconstruction of a skull; the photo inset is of teeth, which reveal much about the specimens relationship to other hominids. Figure: 15-13 Title: A possible evolutionary tree for humans. Caption: This hypothetical family tree shows skulls and facial reconstructions of representative specimens. Although many paleontologists consider this to be the most likely human family tree, there are several alternative interpretations of the known hominid fossils.. Fossils of the earliest hominid, Ardipithecus ramidus, are too fragmentary to enable reconstruction of a skull; the photo inset is of teeth, which reveal much about the specimens relationship to other hominids.

    68. Neanderthals vs. Cro-Magnons

    69. New member of Homo genus repo Homo florensiensis Small island in Indonesia: Florens Short stature Grapefruit sized skull Island evolution Isolation Inbreeding Reduced resources Limited competition Get smaller Co-existed with modern humans until 18,000 years ago.

    70. Who are you? Domain: Eukarya Eukaryote Kingdom: Animalia Animal Phylum: Chordata Chordate Class: Mammalia Mammal Order: Primata Primate Family: Hominidae Hominid Genus: Homo Human Species: sapiens modern