Herbs Nicolette Setola
What is a herb? • Herbaceous Plant • Forms fleshy, not woody stem • Herb is the leafy part of the plant • Herbs include trees, shrubs, ferns, mosses, algae, fungi, vines, annuals, biennials, and perennials • Know for variety of uses: medicinal, culinary, fragrance, ornamental and industrial • About 60 types
Where is the Aroma from? • Herbs maintain their pungent aroma and fragrance from its chemicals • Examples: essential oils, alkaloids, acids, steroids, tannins, saponins • Different extractions are used to obtain a specific chemical
How to extract chemicals? • Drying & Freeze Dry • Pressing • Crushing – mortar and pestle • Infusions - hot teas • Decoctions - boiled teas • Tinctures - alcohol and water extracts • Macerations - cold-soaking • Methods Vary depending on solubility • Medicinally solubility determines where it can be distributed • Example: Tea can be used to treat anti-inflammatory and tincture used to treat bacteria infections.
What are the 4 different categories? • Aromatic: Oils used for aroma and fragrance in perfumes. Lavender has a pungent smell and Chamomile a more gentle aroma. • Medicinal: Used for centuries as preventatives and help cure ailments . Mint help relive stomach ache and feverfew for headaches and rheumatism prevention. • Culinary: Used to add flavor acting like a spice. Rosemary adds a minty but sweet flavor and Thyme adds a clover flavor but a little more subtle. • Ornamental: Dried herbs used for presentation in rooms, fresh herbs used for presentation of dishes or presentation in gardening. Violet and lemon balm.
What is the History of Herbs? Egyptians • Ebers Papyrus, an Egyptian Medical Document • Found by Georg Ebers, a German Egyptologist in 1874 • Contains a 800 medicinal herbs including medicine, cosmetics, aromatics, cooking, fumigating, and embalming. • Ebers Papyrus dates back to about 1700 B.C.
What is the History of Herbs? Chinese and Indian • 2500 B.C. when Ayurveda was discovered. • Treats to balance and create harmony in mental and physical health • Ayurveda: - "the knowledge of how to live" - stresses a balanced lifestyle of exercise, dieting, and clear mental and psychological health.
What is the History of Herbs? Greeks • Hippocrates then studied the three ancient civilizations • Categorized herbs into four groups hot, cold, dry and damp. • Focused on balancing exercise and diet to maintain health • 486-377 B.C. • Dioscorides said to be doctor to Cleopatra and Antony or surgeon during reign of Nero • Wrote De Materia Medica, used as a reference for 1,500 years. • Focused on experimenting with herbs for medicinal purposes • 60 A.D
What is the History of Herbs? Rome • Greeks brought over in 100 B.C. • Galen 131-199 A.D. disliked Hippocrates views of the body healing itself • Four Humors: blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. -Used in Unani medicine and Muslim world
Web Sites • www.cedarknollfarm.com/Culinary%20Herbs.htm • http://www.herbsociety.org • http://www.gardenersnet.com/herbs/ • http://altnature.com/gallery/ • http://www.peacefulmind.com/herbs.htm • http://www.gardenguides.com/plants/herbs/ • http://www.superbherbs.net/lore.htm • http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/comindx.html • http://www.rain-tree.com/prepmethod.htm • http://www.aussiestockphotos.com/photos/photos/detail/111 • http://www.teatimeworldwide.com/teashop/teas/harney.html • www.dfo.com.au/temp/xdfo/media/Herbal%20Tea.jpg • http://www.answers.com/topic/egyptian-languages • http://ise.uvic.ca/Library/SLT/ideas/elements.html • http://healing.about.com/od/floweressences/ig/Flower-Essence-Gallery/feg_dandelion.htm • http://www.medicine-buddha.org/Ayurvedic-Herbal-Academy_Policies/Disclaimer_Contract_Informed_Consent_Counselor_Client_Declarations_of_Rights_Ayurvedic_Practice.htm