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Herbs. Lindsay Brown, Kerstin Brueck, Daron Flory. What is an herb?. Herb- 1. A ______________ annual, biennial or perennial that does not develop persistent woody tissue but dies down at the end of a growing season.

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herbs

Herbs

Lindsay Brown, Kerstin Brueck, Daron Flory

what is an herb
What is an herb?
  • Herb- 1. A ______________ annual, biennial or perennial that does not develop persistent woody tissue but dies down at the end of a growing season.
  • 2. A plant or plant part valued for its medicinal, savory or aromatic qualities.
some stats
Some stats…
  • 13,000 plants are used medicinally
  • 550 are commercially available in the U.S.
  • The FDA approves 279 as _______ or food ingredients
some facts
Some facts
  • In 1996, ___% of American adults reported using herbs.
  • 3.24 billion dollars were spent on herbs
  • According to a survey, 34% of people had used at least one “unconventional therapy”
some facts5
Some facts
  • 10% had seen an herbal practitioner
  • 45% were seeking alternative tx for anxiety, and 35% for depression
are herbs safe
Are herbs safe?

There is a current lack of ______________ in the U.S. regarding herbs.

-Many people think that just because a product is labeled “natural” or “organic,” that it is completely safe-this is not true.

slide7
Cont…

-Our bodies do not distinguish between organic & ______________ drugs- tries to metabolize both the same

-In telephone survey about depression in ’99, majority believed herbs were safer than prescription drugs

Vazquez, R.(2001). Professional Psych: Research and Practice. V. 32 p.329

fda regulation
FDA regulation
  • 1962-FDA issued strict guidelines on safety and efficacy testing requirements for ______________.
  • 1972-FDA began a comprehensive review of all OTC products.
  • Modern herb industry (after 1965) held the FDA in great suspicion and avoided interaction with them-resulting in herbal products being taken out of OTC med’s
slide9
Cont.
  • Since herbs are out of the new drug and OTC business, the botanical industry has no choice but to offer their products as ______________
  • Bad relations between FDA and Herb companies led to the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA)-
dshea
DSHEA

-clearly says what a dietary supplement is and what it is not.

-not ______________.

-Unsafe if it presents risk due to regular use

-The claims on the label must be truthful and not misleading.

dshea cont
DSHEA cont.
  • “This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to treat, cure, or ______________ any disease.”
  • Herbs have to be labeled as “dietary supplement” and must be scientifically researched
  • Herb has to be manufactured under current good manufacturing practices (GMP’s)
bottom line
Bottom line…
  • DSHEA basically assured the American consumers when it comes to using herbal supplements
  • Use of Ginkgo, St. John’s wort, kava-kava and valerian for mood, emotions, and mental states has increased dramatically
  • Ex.-Sale of Ginkgo increased by 66.8%, sale of St. John’s wort by 189.7% from 1997-1998.
st johns wort
St. Johns Wort
  • One of the most popular herbal remedies in Europe and the U.S.
  • Sale of SJW totaled 6 billion in ’98, rose 2800% in one year alone.
  • It comes from the Hypericum Perforatum plant, which is cut and gathered at the start of the ______________.

Vazquez, R.(2001). Professional Psych: Research and Practice. V. 32 p.329

effects of sjw
Depression

The most widely publicized alternative treatment for depression.

OCD

Significant decrease on scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Scale, which is similar to that found in clinical trials of standard prescription anti-depressants.

Effects of SJW

Vazquez, R.(2001). Professional Psych: Research and Practice. V. 32 p.329

problems with sjw
Side effects

Nausea, heartburn, loose bowels, jitteriness, ______________, fatigue, Phototoxic rash, and fatigue.

______________ has a positive correlation with increased side effects.

Problems with SJW

Vazquez, R.(2001). Professional Psych: Research and Practice. V. 32 p.329

kava kava
Originated in South Pacific Islands

It is an extract from the ______________ Plant

Consists of compounds related to anaesthetic, sedating, anticonvulsive, muscle-relaxant, and sleep properties

Kava-kava

Brown R.; Gerbarg, P(2000). American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychiatry, v.19

kava kava treatment uses
Kava-kava treatment uses
  • Fear
  • Anxiety-related disorders
  • Tension
  • Stress
  • Mild depression
    • Kava-kava compared

favorable to Benzodiazepines

anti-depressants

Brown R.; Gerbarg, P(2000). American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychiatry, v.19

plus and minuses
Positives

______________, learning, memory enhancement

Short-term memory processing

Negatives

Side Effects

Liver damage, gastrointestinal disturbances, allergic skin reactions, movement disorders, attention deficits

Most side effects are dose-response

Plus and minuses

Brown R.; Gerbarg, P(2000). American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychiatry, v.19

omega 3
Omega-3
  • Component in Fish oils
    • ______________ fatty acid
  • Prevalent consumption in fish eating countries
    • E.g., Japan, Taiwan, China

Rees, A.; Austin, M.; Parker, G.(2004). School of Psychiatry, U of South Wales

physiological effects
Physiological Effects
  • Helps with:
    • Asthma
    • Cystic Fibrosis
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
      • Reduced morning ____________, reduced number of swollen joints, and joint pain.

Ruxton, C.; Reed, S.; Simpson, M.; Millington, K.(2004). The British Dietetic Association. V. 17 p.449

psychological effects
Psychological Effects
  • Helps increase fluidity in neuronal membranes and help regulate neurotransmitters
    • Depression
    • Bipolar Disorder
    • Dementia

Ruxton, C.; Reed, S.; Simpson, M.; Millington, K.(2004). The British Dietetic Association. V. 17 p.449

sam e s adenosyl methionine
Sam-e (S-adenosyl-methionine)
  • A nutrient or dietary supplement
  • Used by more than a million people in Europe for certain treatments
  • Boosts levels of neurotransmitters
    • Related to Omega-3’s function

Brown R.; Gerbarg, P(2000). American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychiatry, v.19

treats
Treats
  • Depression
    • ______________
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Age-related memory impariment

Brown R.; Gerbarg, P(2000). American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychiatry, v.19

side effects
Side effects
  • Appears to have among the fewest side effects of herbal remedies
  • The main side effect
    • A state of _________ in patients who had bipolar disorder
  • Appears to work well with other medications

Brown R.; Gerbarg, P(2000). American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychiatry, v.19

ginkgo bilboa
Ginkgo Bilboa
  • From the tree family of Ginkgoacae
  • Used for 5000 years
  • Increases cerebral blood flow

Mattes; Pawlik (2004). Human Pharmocology;

increases in the brain
Increases in the brain
  • Memory
  • Concentration
  • ______________
    • Helps with some cognitive disorders
      • E.g., Alzheimer’s disease

Mattes; Pawlik (2004). Human Pharmocology;

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Herbs are an alternative to prescription medicines
  • They have similar qualities/effects as meds, but results will more than likely vary individually
  • Remember: A lot of one thing is always a bad thing