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Herbs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Herbs herbs grow in temperate areas of the world leaves and seeds are used to flavor foods flavor comes from oils in the cell walls methods of preservation drying freezing oil vinegar herb jelly when to harvest peak oil

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herbs2
herbs

grow in temperate areas of the world

leaves and seeds are used to flavor foods

flavor comes from oils in the cell walls

methods of preservation
methods of preservation

drying

freezing

oil

vinegar

herb jelly

when to harvest
when to harvest
  • peak oil
  • just before the flowers first open, when they are in the bursting bud stage
  • early morning after dew has evaporated
  • discard any spotty or damaged leaves
  • rinse herbs in cool water to remove livestock and soil and gently shake to remove excess moisture
drying
drying

easiest method of preserving herbs

methods

  • air drying / hanging
  • dehydrator
  • microwave
  • oven
herb type
herb type
  • less tender herbs
    • rosemary, sage, thyme, summer savory and parsley
    • easy to air dry
  • tender leaf herbs
    • basil, oregano, lemon balm, mints
    • high moisture content and will mold if not dried quickly
air drying
air drying
  • warm, dry, airy, dark room
  • hanging – long stemmed herbs
  • paper bag with holes will keep dust off and collect any seeds
  • trays – short stems and small leaves
  • will take 1 to 2 weeks
dehydrator
dehydrator
  • temperature and air circulation can be controlled
  • spread herbs in a single layer on tray, leaves attached to stems
  • dry two to ten hours at 100°F
  • check periodically, drying times vary
  • herbs are dry when they crumble and stems break when bent
slide9
oven
  • lay the herbs on a paper towel, without allowing leaves to touch
  • cover with another towel and layer of leaves - five layers may be dried at a time
  • dry in a very cool oven
  • oven light of an electric range or the pilot light of a gas range furnished enough heat for overnight drying
  • leaves dry flat and retain good color
microwave
Microwave
  • works well for small amounts
  • place between paper towels
  • medium setting for 2 -3 minutes
  • check for dryness and repeat at 30 second intervals
  • leaves should be brittle and crumble easily
  • requires careful attention!
storing dried herbs
storing dried herbs
  • leave whole and crumple as needed, or coarsely crumpled before
  • seeds can be stored whole and ground as needed
  • place in airtight containers
    • if condensation forms, drying is not complete
  • store in a cool, dry, dark area to protect color and fragrance
  • label each - they will look alike when dried!
  • shelf life is generally one to two years
      • according to Penzey’s herb and spice catalog “old spices never go bad, they just fade away”
using dried herbs
using dried herbs

dried herbs are stronger than fresh

general rule: dried herbs = 3 to 4 times fresh

freezing
freezing
  • freezing is best for herbs with soft, lush green leaves
    • basil, chives, cilantro, dill, fennel, , mint, parsley, sweet cicely
    • will become limp in the process, but their flavor and color will be intact
  • to blanch or not to blanch?
freezing cont
freezing, cont
  • sprigs can be frozen directly
  • OR chop finely, put in ice cube trays and top with water.
  • put into labeled, sealed containers
  • in most cases you will not need to thaw before use
  • use in the same proportion as fresh herbs
slide16
oil
  • garlic in oil
    • health risk
    • must be stored in refrigerator!
  • vegetables and herbs in oil
    • less documentation
    • best made fresh
    • dried tomatoes and dried herbs less of a safety concern
    • still recommended to store these in the fridge
  • freezing herbs in oil
herb vinegar
herb vinegar
  • advantages
  • which vinegar?
  • which herbs?
  • fruits & vegetables
  • spices
  • experiment!
how to prepare
how to prepare

be clean!

  • seeds or leaves?

jars and lids

  • only glass jars or bottles free of cracks or nicks
  • tight fitting non-reactive lids
  • wash thoroughly, sterilize in boiling water – 10 minutes

herbs

  • wash fresh herbs gently in cold water
  • lightly bruise leaves to shorten process, if desired
  • amount varies widely

vinegar

  • heat to just below boiling point, around 195 F
how to prepare cont
how to prepare, cont…

filling

  • place prepared herbs, fruits and/or spices into jars
  • avoid overpacking
  • pour vinegar over ingredients, leaving ¼ inch headspace
  • wipe rims of jars, attach lids or cords

steeping

  • let sit for 3 to 4 weeks to develop flavors
  • dark, cool location

straining

  • will clarify product
  • use damp cheesecloth (triple layer), nylon jelly bag, coffee filter

storing

  • keep out of direct sunlight
how to use your vinegar
how to use your vinegar
  • substitute in any recipe with vinegar
  • drizzle over freshly steamed vegetables
  • make a vinaigrette dressing
  • dip for bread
  • marinades
  • dilute in small amount of water and drink!
herb jelly
herb jelly

To make an herb infusion:

  • combine fruit juice or water and herbs
  • heat to boiling point, do not boil
  • remove from heat and let steep, covered, for 20 minutes
  • discard herbs
basil
basil

drying

  • hang to dry

freezing

  • blanching works well
  • ice cube trays

oil

  • pesto
chives
chives

drying

  • don’t retain much flavor or color

freezing

  • chop and put on try or in ice cube trays with water
  • will retain fresh-like flavor and color for one year

vinegar

coriander cilantro
coriander/cilantro

growing

  • seeds or leaves?

seeds

  • shake seed heads into a paper bag
  • dry completely in a cool dark place
  • store in freezer

leaves

  • drying results in a loss of flavor
  • freezing works better
slide25
dill

drying

  • hang branches in bunches
  • hang seed heads inside ventilated paper bag to catch seeds

freezing

  • freezes best when still attached to stalk
  • will retain fresh-like flavor and color for one year

vinegar

pickling

lavender
lavender

harvest

  • when flowers nearly open

drying

  • tie and hang in bundles
  • spread out flat

cooking

  • add fresh or dried to baked goods or jelly
  • mix flowers with black tea
slide27
mint

dries well

  • hang upside down or dry in dehydrator
  • peppermint will hold it’s fragrance and flavor better than other mints when dries

uses

  • tea
  • mint jelly
oregano
oregano

drying

  • best way to preserve
  • hang stems or spread out flat
  • strip leaves onto fruit leather insert from dehydrator

freezing

  • oregano pesto

vinegar

rosemary
rosemary

harvest

  • anytime

drying

  • hang stems or spread out flat

freezing

  • freeze in whole sprigs

overwinter indoors

slide30
sage

harvest

  • before buds form

drying

  • hang stems or spread out flat

freezing

  • blanch before freezing if storing for more than 3 months