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Day 1. Chapter 15-17 Quiz. Homework. Essays 4, 5, & 6. Due Jan. 5/6. DO NOT spend more than 40 min on any of the essays individually . Graphic Organizer: Spanish & Portuguese Efforts Due Jan. 5/6. Essays 4, 5, & 6 Topics.

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homework
Homework
  • Essays 4, 5, & 6. Due Jan. 5/6.
    • DO NOT spend more than 40 min on any of the essays individually.
  • Graphic Organizer: Spanish & Portuguese Efforts
    • Due Jan. 5/6
essays 4 5 6 topics
Essays 4, 5, & 6 Topics

Also found on the class website and on the Handout currently being passed out.

essays 4 5 6 topics1
Essays 4, 5, & 6 Topics
  • All essays must be hand written on the same type of paper.
  • Staple the completed DBQ and CCOT essays to the back of the Essay Handout in order.
  • Keep the C/C essay separate.
  • Fill out the heading on the Essay Handout.
  • Each Essay needs to have a title of what type of Essay it is.
    • DBQ, CCOT & C/C will do.
essays 4 5 6 topics2
Essays 4, 5, & 6 Topics
  • DBQ
    • Document Based Question
    • Topic and documents found on page D-5 of your text book.
    • Topic I. 5 Documents.
  • CCOT
    • Changes and Continuities Over Time
    • Analyze the economic, political and cultural evolution of the Roman empire of the classical period to the Byzantine empire of the postclassical era. Identify both continuities and changes in the transformation from Roman to Byzantine society.
  • C/C
    • Compare and Contrast
    • Compare and contrast the role that China played in the development of Korea, Vietnam, and Japan to the role played by Byzantium in eastern Europe and Russia.
graphic organizers as a study tool1
Graphic organizers as a study tool.

Create a graphic organizer to help identify the difference and similarities between Spanish and Portuguese colonization efforts in the Americas.

Draw two intersecting circles in your notes (Venn Diagram) and label one circle “Spanish Efforts” and label the other “Portuguese Efforts.”

In the center where the two circles intersect, list the similarities between the two nations’ efforts at colonization.

graphic organizers as a study tool2
Graphic organizers as a study tool.

To list your differences, you should draw lines out from each circle and draw smaller circles at the end of each line.

In these smaller circles, you should list the dissimilar ways that Spain and Portugal set up and run their colonies.

These Graphic Organizers will be graded when we return.

chapter 19

Chapter 19

Early Latin America

colonization policies1
Colonization policies
  • This chapter makes an interesting comment about the difference between the Russian czars’ selective westernization policy and the enforced acculturation of Mesoamericans and Andean peoples by Spain and Portugal. (Refer back to Chapter 18 for C/C)
    • This subject might prove an interesting one to pursue in group study sessions.
    • Thoughts/ideas on this assumption?
  • Refer back to earlier cultures you have studied to see whether conquerors always impose their own ways on those they come to dominate.
mercantilism
Mercantilism

Chapter Theme

mercantilism1
Mercantilism

Mercantilism, an economic theory that had a wide-ranging impact on the peoples of the world.

Its execution affected the economies of all nations involved, as well as developments in politics, society, culture, and religious beliefs over time.

Understanding of the theory of mercantilism and its political and social ramifications is important to understanding Europe in the 18th century.

mercantilism2
Mercantilism

Prior to this time, European conflict was focused on religious issues, a remnant of the Reformation.

By the 18th century, however, European nations were looking outward and had begun to create empires.

Now nation-states came into conflict with one another over territorial possessions and the right to trade with one another’s colonies.

slide16

Compare the social organization of the Americas and Europe, and explain why the differences in social hierarchy contributed to a sense of self-identity in the colonies.

social organization of the americas and europe
Social organization of the Americas and Europe
  • The great difference was the significance of color and the existence of miscegenation.
    • Miscegenation: marriage or cohabitation between a man and woman of different races, esp., in the U.S., between a black and a white person. Interbreeding between members of different races. The mixing or a mixture of races by interbreeding.
  • Their presence created a social hierarchy based not so much on wealth or the prestige associated with social function that was typical in Europe but on a hierarchy based on color.
social organization of the americas and europe1
Social organization of the Americas and Europe
  • Whites (divided into peninsulares and Creoles) were at the top, mixed races (castas) in the middle, and blacks and Indians at the bottom.
    • Peninsulares: Spanish-born residents of the New World.
    • Creoles: People of European ancestry born in Spanish New World colonies; dominated local economies; ranked socially below peninsulares.
  • The distinct social system gave rise to a sense of self-identity, especially among Creoles and castas.
  • It created a sense of difference from Europeans, contributed to 18th-century rebellions, and eventually stimulated independence movements.
slide19
Evaluate the following statement: Spanish and Portuguese colonies were extensions of the global network of the West.
spanish and portuguese colonies were extensions of the global network of the west
Spanish and Portuguese colonies were extensions of the global network of the West.
  • The mixed economies established in Latin America initially were based on estate agriculture systems (sugar) staffed by coerced labor (African slaves or encomienda grants).
      • Encomiendas: Grants of estates Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Latin America; established a framework for relations based on economic dominance.
    • Mining—silver by the Spanish, gold and diamonds in Brazil—developed later.
    • Ranching developed to supply local demands, as did small industries, such as textiles.
spanish and portuguese colonies were extensions of the global network of the west1
Spanish and Portuguese colonies were extensions of the global network of the West.
  • The result was an economy typical of the dependent economic zone in the global trade network.
    • The Iberian nations served as a conduit of American goods to the core economic region of northwestern Europe.
  • Both nations failed to develop banking systems or industrial capacity.
  • Their negative balance of trade led to the outflow of bullion from the New World to the core economic region.
  • Let’s see how this works.
laws for the indies
Laws for the Indies

Preparing for our Council Activity next class.

It all goes with the reading online.

dividing the class for a simulated council of the indies lawmaking session
Dividing the class for a simulated Council of the Indies lawmaking session:

Conquistadors: Soldiers and encomienda masters who conquered the New World for Spain

Viceroys: The king's representatives in the New World. Each heads the government of a Spanish colony.

Missionaries: Members of religious orders who want to convert the Indians to Christianity

Indian Defenders: People like Las Casas who protest the mistreatment of Indians and defend their human rights

Council of the Indies: The lawmaking body for the Indies

instructions
Instructions

The first four role groups will prepare a position with arguments on each of the proposed laws while the last group (the council) develops questions to ask.

Each group will then present its position on the first proposed law before the Council of the Indies.

The council will ask questions of each group after it has finished.

The council will then discuss and decide whether to approve, disapprove, or modify the proposed law.

The same procedure will be followed in considering the other proposed laws.

proposed laws
Proposed Laws

Indians shall not be permitted to go without clothing, worship idols, or make human sacrifices.

Sons of Indian leaders will be instructed in reading, writing, and the Catholic faith at the expense of their encomienda masters.

The encomienda system will be phased out. When a current encomienda master dies, his Indians shall become vassals of the crown.

Books by Juan Gines de Sepulveda shall not be printed or distributed in the Indies.

the decline of spain
The Decline of Spain

A case study of how NOT to encourage economic growth.

CONCEPTS

Economic Growth

Government Spending

Taxation

Monopoly

Human Resources

Inflation

Price Controls

history
History

In the late 1400s and early 1500s, Spanish commanders Columbus, Pizarro, and Cortez claimed lands rich in gold and silver for the Spanish crown.

Between 1503 and 1650, 16 million kilograms of silver and 185,000 kilograms of gold entered the Spanish port of Seville.

mystery
Mystery

In spite of the gold and silver that flowed into Spain, Spanish rulers declared bankruptcy eight times between 1557 and 1680.

Living standards of the Spanish people fell and famine was common.

Spain became one of the poorest nations in western Europe and even today lags behind most western European countries economically.

economic history
Economic History
  • The Spanish economy failed to grow for many reasons.
  • These included:
    • disastrous government spending and taxing policies
    • expulsion of minorities with productive skills
    • failure to cultivate a productive middle class
    • and inappropriate reactions to the inflation of the 1500s
the decline of spain1
THE DECLINE OF SPAIN
  • Today you will be working together to study how nations can encourage economic growth.
  • What do you think is meant by the term “economic growth”?
    • An continuous increase in the total amount of goods and services available to people in a society.
the decline of spain2
THE DECLINE OF SPAIN

Remember that in the late 1400s and early 1500s, the Spanish acquired lands in the New World that contained vast quantities of gold and silver.

Between 1503 and 1650, 16 million kilograms of silver and 185,000 kilograms of gold were shipped to Spain from the New World.

It would seem that such a vast treasure would have helped Spain to grow economically.

Yet, Spanish rulers declared bankruptcy eight times between 1557 and 1680.

the decline of spain3
THE DECLINE OF SPAIN

High taxes caused the living standards of the Spanish people to fall and famine became common.

Spain became one of the poorest nations in western Europe; even today Spain lags behind most of western Europe economically.

What does this say about money and economic growth?

You will be studying Spain as an example of how NOT to encourage economic growth.

activity 1 welcome to the united nations economic development task force
Activity 1WELCOME TO THE UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT TASK FORCE

Divide into groups of six. Each group represents a committee of the United Nations. Read Activity 1.

activities 2 3 and 4
Activities 2, 3, and 4.

Each group appoint subcommittees of two students each to study one of the three activities.

Each group is to develop a list of policies that a developing nation should follow in order to encourage economic prosperity.

List suggested policies in written form and explain why each would probably be beneficial to economic prosperity.

Give examples from the passages you read of how the Spanish government made the wrong choices.

suggested policies
Suggested policies:

Moderate government spending to avoid the need for heavy taxes or borrowing

taxes that affect all people equally or at least do not provide incentives for people to abandon productive activities

No monopolies to raise prices and shelter producers from the need to produce efficiently

no internal taxes on trade; no discrimination against minority groups

stable prices

no price controls to discourage production

closure
Closure

Give examples from the passages you read of how the Spanish government made the wrong choices.

homework1
Homework
  • Read: Laws of the Indies: Spain and the Native Peoples of the New World (Website) by the start of class on Dec. 16 or 17.
  • Essays 4, 5, & 6. Due Jan. 5/6.
    • DO NOT spend more than 40 min on any of the essays individually.
laws for the indies1
Laws for the Indies

The Council of the Indies considered at one time all the proposed laws for the Indies listed on the following slides.

dividing the class for a simulated council of the indies lawmaking session1
Dividing the class for a simulated Council of the Indies lawmaking session:

Conquistadors: Soldiers and encomienda masters who conquered the New World for Spain

Viceroys: The king's representatives in the New World. Each heads the government of a Spanish colony.

Missionaries: Members of religious orders who want to convert the Indians to Christianity

Indian Defenders: People like Las Casas who protest the mistreatment of Indians and defend their human rights

Council of the Indies: The lawmaking body for the Indies

instructions1
Instructions

The first four role groups will prepare a position with arguments on each of the proposed laws while the last group (the council) develops questions to ask.

Each group will then present its position on the first proposed law before the Council of the Indies.

The council will ask questions of each group after it has finished.

The council will then discuss and decide whether to approve, disapprove, or modify the proposed law.

The same procedure will be followed in considering the other proposed laws.

proposed laws1
Proposed Laws

Indians shall not be permitted to go without clothing, worship idols, or make human sacrifices.

Sons of Indian leaders will be instructed in reading, writing, and the Catholic faith at the expense of their encomienda masters.

The encomienda system will be phased out. When a current encomienda master dies, his Indians shall become vassals of the crown.

Books by Juan Gines de Sepulveda shall not be printed or distributed in the Indies.

practice for the ap exam
PRACTICE FOR THE AP EXAM:

Use these hints, tips and tricks to improve your chances of a higher score on the AP Test.

slide46

In writing an essay, whether it is during the year or for the actual AP* exam, you must be comfortable with the rubric against which you will be graded.

As you write, it is essential that you not only answer the question well, based on good writing standards, but that you understand the specific criteria for which the AP* readers will be looking.

If you do not meet the basic standards, you will not score in the upper range (7–9).

how to write a dbq
How to Write a DBQ
  • The DBQ is a test of skills, not content.
  • Specific outside knowledge of the material is neither expected nor required.
    • This DBQ format is similar to the European AP exam, in that outside knowledge is not required in the essay.
    • It is very different from the U.S. AP exam’s DBQ, in which specific outside knowledge constitutes a substantial part of the score you receive on this essay.
  • In essence, you are asked to write a mini-research paper based on the documents supplied.
how to write a dbq1
How to Write a DBQ
  • The skills on which you are scored correspond to a historian’s task in:
    • (a) interpreting documents;
    • (b) creating an argument or interpretation based on those documents;
    • and (c) pondering what documents you wished you had to make your argument even stronger.
  • The DBQ is the easiest essay question on the world history AP exam if you understand that it is a skills test, and if you have been taught the skills!
how to write a dbq2
How to Write a DBQ

Take out your DBQ Scoring Guide.

We are going to go over every part of the rubric.

Remember! You must earn all 7 points in the Basic Core before you can receive any points in the Expanded Core.

acceptable thesis
Acceptable thesis:

An acceptable thesis is a sentence that answers the question that was asked.

It does not merely repeat the question, nor does it dither by saying, “we shall see how…”

It should be in the beginning of the essay.

1 point

understands the basic meaning of the documents
Understands the basic meaning of the documents:

This is the most basic form of document analysis.

It is “plot summary,” to use a term from English classes.

1 point

supports thesis with appropriate evidence from all or all but one document
Supports thesis with appropriate evidence from all or all but one document:
  • There are two issues here:
    • using the documents correctly to support the thesis,
    • and using all or all but one documents.
      • You will be using all the documents.
  • There are no irrelevant documents in the DBQ.
  • 2 points for using all or all but one document; 1 point for using all but two documents.
  • The ability to use documents to support an idea is the most crucial skill for writing historical research, so this skill has 2 potential points.
analyzes point of view in at least two documents
Analyzes point of view in at least two documents:
  • This is the most difficult level of document analysis for students to grasp.
  • You must analyze all documents for POV before deciding which to include in your essay.
    • The Generic AP rubrics represent the most minimal standards that a student must meet to receive a point on this AP essay.
    • Do not reach to the lowest standard!
    • Do POV in all documents.
    • You are required to use all the documents.
    • Also, ask for several additional documents.
analyzes point of view in at least two documents1
Analyzes point of view in at least two documents:
  • One crutch is to train yourself to always ask the following:
    • Why would this person be saying/writing/designing this thing at this particular time and in this particularplace?
    • AND how does this help me answer the question that was asked?
  • By answering these queries, you should consider both the author’s characteristics, the particularities of the document or artifact, including the intended audience, and the historical context in which the author and the artifact dwelt.
  • 1 point
analyzes documents by group them in two or three ways depending on the question
Analyzes documents by group them in two or three ways, depending on the question:
  • This is the second-easiest form of document analysis:
    • seeing commonalities among documents that help build an argument or interpretation.
  • There are endless permutations of grouping, and of course it depends on the question asked.
    • political documents
    • documents written by women
    • visual documents
    • documents of a certain country or time period
    • statistical evidence
    • etc.
analyzes documents by group them in two or three ways depending on the question1
Analyzes documents by group them in two or three ways, depending on the question:

Never go through the documents in order, writing “Document 1 says this…, Document 2 says that….”

This is the kiss of death to a DBQ, because it demonstrates that you have no control over the basic concept of writing an integrated essay.

By the way, one document is not a group; “group” is a plural concept.

1 point

identifies and explains the need for one type of appropriate additional document or source
Identifies and explains the need for one type of appropriate additional document or source:

When historians create an argument or interpretation, they are looking for documents to help them prove their points.

It is inevitable that they cannot find every single type of document for which they search.

The awareness of an elusive “missing piece of information” is a high-level analytical skill.

It requires awareness that one is making an argument, and that there should be a logical sequence of evidence.

identifies and explains the need for one type of appropriate additional document or source1
Identifies and explains the need for one type of appropriate additional document or source:

In the world history DBQ, you must ask for a specific typeof a document or source (a map of X, a photograph of Y, population figures for Z, a letter from A explaining B) and explain why that document would help you prove your argument/thesis.

You do not have to request a specific document, but it has to be a document that could logically exist, and it can’t be nonsensical.

identifies and explains the need for one type of appropriate additional document or source2
Identifies and explains the need for one type of appropriate additional document or source:
  • There is a certain fiction of writing a research paper that needs to be maintained.
  • The object is to demonstrate the analytical skill of knowing what type of documentary evidence to look for.
  • All of the following examples are inadequate calls for additional documentation.
    • “I wish I had Mr. Murphy to tell me the answer”;
    • “I wish I had my notebook from class when we discussed this”;
    • “I wish I had a copy of the textbook”
identifies and explains the need for one type of appropriate additional document or source3
Identifies and explains the need for one type of appropriate additional document or source:
  • You have to explain specifically why or how the missing document would help bolster the thesis/argument.
  • A good example might be:
    • “If I had population figures of Constantinople and Tenochtitlan, I could better prove my thesis that these two cities, where trade was enormous, were also the biggest cities in the world at the time.”
  • Although the rubric only calls for one additional document, it would be wise to ask for an additional document for each part of your argument, or in every proof/body paragraph you write.
  • 1 point
expanded core points1
Expanded Core Points

These last 2 points cannot be given unless you have received all 7 points in the Basic Core, no matter how wonderfully you have done on these other skills.

These are really “brownie points,” or the subjective part of scoring an AP essay.

expanded core points2
Expanded Core Points

Although there are examples given in the rubric of situations where Expanded Core Points could be awarded, these are not prescriptive.

If an essay has an outstanding thesis, it could be awarded 2 Expanded Core Points just for that.

On the other hand, if the essay just barely scraped by with the 7 core points, the reader is under no obligation to award any more points and the essay would be scored a 7 (which is a very good score!).

slide67

The Generic Core-Scoring Rubric gets tweaked to make it fit the peculiarities of a specific question.

  • For example, a particular DBQ may require three groups, while the one you had last month only needed two groups, and the next one will really require four.
  • Essays are scored from 0-9.
    • There is no “correlation” to the typical letter grades.
    • The ETS statisticians compile the three essay scores and the score on the multiple choice section to come up with a final score, which is then mutated into a 1-5 score on the exam itself.
independent group study time1
Independent/Group Study Time

Conflict Analysis: Eighteenth-century revolts in the Americas

Change Analysis: Indian societies after the Iberians; eighteenth-century reforms in Europe

Document Analysis: A Vision from the Vanquished

Dialectical Journal: In Depth: The Great Exchange