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Clovis and Later Paleoindian Traditions (10,000-8,000 B.C.). Technology, Subsistence, and Settlement. Paleoindian Chronology. Early Paleoindian (10000 B.C. to 9000 B.C.) The first subperiod, Early Paleoindian, is characterized by Clovis or Clovis-like large fluted stone points.
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Technology, Subsistence, and Settlement
Clovis points are found in association with the bones of Ice Age animals in sites in many areas of North America and document both the importance of big game hunting and the effectiveness of early Paleo weaponry. The species exploited included mammoths, who grazed on the tundra grasses and mastodons who browsed on the spruce needles. Giant, long-horned bison provided a secondary food source.
The point pictured at the top of this page, was found in Pike County, Illinois. It is made from fine white chert which has minute, rust colored inclusions. It is fluted on both sides.
Knife River Flint, western North Dakota. The rarity of points and absence of other artifacts or signs of settlement suggests the presence of small groups who made only infrequent visits to the province in the course of their movements.
East Wenatchee Cache, Washington in 1987. The site is located in an apple orchard near the Columbia River in central Washington. The initial find was made by workers who were digging a ditch for an irrigation pipe line.
The new projectile points had thinner blades and were smaller, possibly in response to the efficiencies of bison hunting or to facilitated hafting to a spear point.Folsom Points
This almost complete skeleton of a yearling bison calf was found in the lower part of Bone Bed 3. Apparently it was buried beneath other fallen bison carcasses and was never butchered.
R. Walker 1998
P. Parmalee 1994
P. Gardner 1994, K. Detwiler n.d.
View of the cave during early testing of the
site. The buckets mark the front of the opening.
1990 and 1994, the supports were removed briefly to photograph the extent of the trench and then replaced.
View of test unit A showing microstratigraphic concentrations of anthropogenic sediments (left side and lower area of unit) and pit features (upper right side of unit).
microstratigraphic layers. The white tags in the wall have the zone designations.
0 10 20cm
*Data from Parmalee 2001 (p.c.)