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NEW WORLD ENCOUNTERS. America: Past and Present Chapter 1. Native American Histories before Conquest. 20,000 B.C.--Siberian hunters become first American inhabitants 8,000 B.C.--Humans reach tip of South America. 5,000 B.C.--Agricultural Revolution Crops include maize, squash, and beans

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NEW WORLD ENCOUNTERS


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new world encounters

NEW WORLD ENCOUNTERS

America: Past and Present

Chapter 1

native american histories before conquest
Native American Histories before Conquest
  • 20,000 B.C.--Siberian hunters become first American inhabitants
  • 8,000 B.C.--Humans reach tip of South America.
  • 5,000 B.C.--Agricultural Revolution
    • Crops include maize, squash, and beans
    • Shift from nomadic hunting and gathering to permanent villages or large cities
mysterious disappearances
Mysterious Disappearances
  • Anasazi Culture—Chaco Canyon
    • Sophisticated irrigation
    • Well-built roads for transportation
  • Adena and Hopewell Peoples—Ohio Valley
    • Large ceremonial mounds
    • Extensive trade network
  • Cahokia—Mississippi Valley
    • Large ceremonial mounds
    • Far-flung trade network
aztec dominance
Aztec Dominance
  • Aztecs settle valley of Mexico
  • Center of large, powerful empire
  • Highly organized social structure
  • Rule through fear and force
eastern woodland cultures
Eastern Woodland Cultures
  • Atlantic Coast of North America
  • Native Americans lived in smaller bands
  • Agriculture supplemented by hunting and gathering
cultural characteristics
Cultural Characteristics
  • Diversity of language groups, ethnicities
  • Define place in society through kinship
  • Communal, charismatic, sociopolitical formation
  • Diplomacy, trade, war organized around reciprocal relationships
confederacies of eastern north america
Confederacies of Eastern North America
  • Hurons--Southern Ontario near Lakes Ontario and Erie
  • Iroquois--Central New York
  • Powhattans--Chesapeake
indians discover a new world
Indians Discover a New World
  • Native Americans eager for European trade
  • Reject notions of European superiority
  • European efforts to convert or "civilize" Indians
    • Frequent contact makes native men receptive to Christianity
    • Determination to preserve power leads native women to resist conversion
    • Native disease, dependence erodes resistance to conversion among women and men
disease and dependency
Disease and Dependency
  • Contact brings population decline among American Indians
  • Cause: Lack of resistance to epidemic disease
    • smallpox
    • measles
    • influenza
  • Rate as high as ninety-five percent
west africa ancient and complex societies
West Africa: Ancient and Complex Societies
  • Diversity of sub-Saharan Cultures
    • Islam
    • Strong traditional beliefs
  • A history of empires
    • Mali
    • Ghana
  • Daily life centered on elder-ruled clans
beginnings of the slave trade
Beginnings of theSlave Trade
  • 15th-century Portuguese chart sea lanes from Europe to sub-Saharan Africa
  • Native rulers sell prisoners of war to Portuguese as slaves
how many slaves
How Many Slaves?
  • 17th century--ca. 1,000 Africans per year
  • 18th century--5.5 million transported to the Americas
  • By 1860--ca. 11 million
  • Before 1831, more Africans than Europeans came to the Americas.
european colonization
European Colonization
  • 10th Century --Leif Ericson settles “Vinland”
  • Late 15th-century--preconditions for overseas settlement attained
    • rise of nation-states
    • spread of new technologies
    • spread of old knowledge.
  • 1492--Columbus initiates large-scale European colonization
building new nation states
Building New Nation-States
  • Population growth after 1450
  • “New Monarchs” forge nations from scattered provinces
    • Spain
    • France
    • England
  • “Middle class” a new source of revenue
  • Powerful military forces deployed
making sense of a new world
Making Sense of a New World
  • Spain the first European nation to achieve conditions for successful colonization
  • Unified under Ferdinand and Isabella
  • 1492--Jews and Muslims expelled
  • Conquest of Canary Islands provides rehearsal for colonization
calculating risks and rewards
Calculating Risks and Rewards
  • Columbus persuades Queen Isabella to finance westward expedition to “Cathay”
  • 1492--Initial voyage
  • Three subsequent voyages to find cities of China
  • 1506--died clinging to belief he had reached the Orient
  • Made possible Spanish dominion in America
the conquistadores
The Conquistadores
  • Independent adventurers commissioned by Spanish crown to subdue new lands
  • By 1512--Major Caribbean islands decimated
  • By 1521--Cortés destroys Aztec Empire
  • 1539-42--de Soto explores Southeast
  • 1540-42--Coronado explores Southwest
from plunder to settlement
From Plunder to Settlement
  • Encomienda System rewards Conquistadors
    • Large land grants
    • Indian inhabitants provide labor or tribute
  • Appointed officials answer only to Crown
  • Catholic Church
    • Protects Indian rights
    • Performs mass conversions
  • By 1650, 1/2 million Spaniards in New World
    • Unmarried males intermarry
    • Mixed-blood population emerges
the french claim canada
The French Claim Canada
  • 1608--Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec
  • French Empire eventually includes St. Lawrence River, Great Lakes, Mississippi
  • French Crown makes little effort to foster settlement
  • Fur trade underpins economy
  • Indians become valued trading partners
england in the new world
England in the New World
  • Claims New World territory under Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547)
  • Achieves preconditions for colonization under Elizabeth I
birth of english protestantism
Birth of English Protestantism
  • English rise influenced by Protestant Reformation
    • 1517--Martin Luther sparks reform in Germany
    • 1536--John Calvin’s Institutes published in Geneva
  • Reformation pits European Protestants against Catholics
the english reformation
The English Reformation
  • Tudor monarchs bring political unity
  • Reformation under Henry Vlll (r. 1509-1547) strengthens Crown
  • Protestant reform accelerated under Edward VI (r. 1547-1553)
  • Death of Mary I (r. 1553-1558) cuts short English Catholic Counterreformation
  • Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) consolidates English Reformation
militant protestantism
Militant Protestantism
  • Lutheran Reformation
    • God speaks through Bible, not Pope or priests
    • Justification by faith alone for salvation
  • Calvinist Reformation
    • John Calvin stresses God’s omnipotence
    • Predestination—some persons chosen by God for salvation
  • Calvinist Christianity expands in northern Europe
    • France—Huguenots
    • Scotland—Presbyterians
    • England—Puritans
woman in power
Woman in Power
  • Elizabeth I (1558-1603) a very capable monarch
  • Elizabeth introduces Via Media
    • Protestant Doctrine
    • “Catholic” Ritual
    • Ends religious turmoil in England
  • Elizabeth’s excommunication by Pope prompts Spanish crusade against England
  • England aligned with Protestant nations against Catholic powers
religion war and nationalism
Religion, War, and Nationalism
  • Spanish hostility makes Elizabeth the symbol of English, Protestant nationhood
  • Sea Dogs’ seizure of Spanish treasure makes them English heroes
  • Elizabeth's subjects raid Spain's American empire
  • 1588-- Spanish Armada defeated
irish background for american settlement
Irish Background for American Settlement
  • Ireland a laboratory for English colonization
    • Irish viewed as backward
    • English under Elizabeth seize Irish land
  • English Brutality
    • English ethnocentrism benign when Irish docile
    • English brutally crush frequent Irish resistance such as massacre of women and children
  • English adventurers compare Native Americans with “wild” Irish
early english efforts in america
Early English Efforts in America
  • Sir Walter Raleigh’s Roanoke colony of 1584 fails
  • By 1600 no English settlements in New World
  • Richard Hakluyt advertises benefits of American colonization